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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Extra high strength zinc-coated 1080 steel welded wire was wound into seven-wire cable strands for use in aerial cables and guy wires. The wires and cable strands failed tensile, elongation, and wrap tests, with wires fracturing near welds at 2.5 to 3.5% elongation and through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... Abstract Wire ropes, pulleys, counterweights, and connecting systems are used for auto tensioning of contact wires of electric railways. A wire rope in one such auto tensioning system suffered premature failure. Failure investigation revealed fatigue cracks initiating at nonmetallic inclusions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Locked coil wire ropes, by virtue of their unique design and construction, have specialized applications in aerial ropeways, mine hoist installations, suspension bridge cables, and so forth. In such specialty ropes, the outer layer is constructed of Z-profile wires that provide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract During construction of a river bridge with 80 twisted cables, one or more fractures were found in each of 21 wires of 18 cables before assembly. All were located at the outside wrapping whose Z-profile wires were galvanically zinc-coated. It was suspected that hydrogen played a role...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Microstructure, corrosion, and fracture morphologies of prestressed steel wires that failed in service on concrete siphons at the Central Arizona Project (CAP) are discussed. The CAP conveys water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use through a system of canals, tunnels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract Cerclage wire, which was used with two screws and washers for a tension band in a corrective internal fixation, was found broken at several points and corroded after nine months in service. The material was examined using energy-dispersive x-ray analysis and determined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0006897
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract The small cable (drop wire) providing service for individual subscribers from the aerial plant is held in place by a clamp made of a tin-coated brass body (attached to the cable) and a copper tail wire loop (attached to a galvanized steel hook or to a porcelain insulator). The tail...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract An electron probe microanalyzer was applied to the study of service failures (due to severe heating) of aluminum wire connections in residential electrical circuits. Perturbed regions in which the composition underwent a change during the failure were revealed by optical and scanning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract A production lot of plastic wire clips was failing after limited service. The failures were characterized by excessive relaxation of the clips, such that the corresponding wires were no longer adequately secured in the parts. No catastrophic failures had been encountered. Parts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A 2.3 mm diam steel wire broke during cable twisting. The fracture occurred obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the wire and showed a constriction at the end. Therefore it was a ductile fracture. File mark type work defects were noticeable on the wire surface at both sides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract A 3.8-cm diam 6 x 37 rope of improved plow steel wire failed in service during dumping of a ladle of hot slag. A heavy blue oxide extending 0.6 to 0.9 m back from each side of the break was revealed on examination of the rope. Tensile fractures were shown by the broken ends of the rope...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract An AISI type 303(Se) stainless steel eye terminal that was roll swaged on the end of a 9.5 mm diam wire rope cracked extensively after one year of service. A hairline crack that had initiated at the inner surface of the fitting was revealed by metallographic examination of a sectioned...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract A 13 mm diam 18 x 7 fiber-core improved plow steel nonrotating wire rope, brought into service as a replacement for 6 x 37 improved plow steel ropes, failed after 14 months of service on a stacker crane. The change was reported to have been caused by difficulties twisting of the 6 x 37...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract The 11 mm diam 8 x 19 fiber-core rope, constructed from improved plow steel wire, on the cleaning-line crane failed while lifting a normal load of coils after five weeks of service. Several broken wires and fraying of the fiber core were revealed by visual examination of a section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract The cross bars of conveyor belt links that served to transport glass containers through a stress relief furnace fractured in many cases. They consisted of wires of 5 mm diam made of low-carbon Siemens-Martin steel, while the interwoven longitudinal bars were made of strip steel of 4 x...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract Mechanical properties of wire ropes, their chemical composition, and the failure analysis process for them are described. The wires are manufactured from high-carbon, plain carbon steel, with high-strength ropes most often manufactured from AISI Grade 1074. During visual failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The springs formed from 3.8 mm diam cold-drawn carbon steel wire failed to comply with load-test requirements. A split wire in the spring was revealed by investigation. A smooth heat-tinted longitudinal zone was observed in the fracture. It was concluded that the spring failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A cadmium-plated music-wire return spring that operated in a pneumatic cylinder designed for infinite life at a maximum stress level of 620 MPa failed after 240,000 cycles. An extremely hard and small kernel, which looked like a weld deposit, was observed at the center of the fractured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A drawing plant which processed steel wire of designation 105 Cr 2 for ball bearings had losses due to crack formation and wire breakage during drawing. To establish the reason for the breakage, seven fractures were submitted for investigation with contiguous wire segments on both...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0090932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Cold-drawn type 303 stainless steel wire sections, 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter, failed during a forming operation. All of the wires failed at a gradual 90 deg bend. Investigation (visual inspection and 5.3x/71x/1187x SEM views) supported the conclusion that the wires cracked due...