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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... Ball mills Copper ores Impact Stresses White iron Impact wear Brittle fracture Two broken ball-mill liners from a copper-mine ore operation were submitted for failure analysis. These liners failed prematurely, having reached less than 20% of their expected life. Investigation Conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract Several deburring drums that fractured were filled with abrasive, water, and small parts, such as roller bearing rollers, and rotated on their axis at 36 rpm. Cracks were discovered very early in the service lives of these high-chromium white iron cast structures. All...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A white cast iron water-line plug in a fire sprinkler systems split during leak repair. Examination revealed no material flaws, fatigue, or excessive corrosion. The plug head exhibited signs of excessive loads used in attempts to force the plug farther into the pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A high-chromium white cast iron shell liner installed in an ore crusher sustained impact damage in the course of operation. Visual-optical examination revealed horizontal cracks on the surface of the liner along with particles that had fractured off. Metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mill, showing placement of the attrition mill wear plates Fig. 12 Effect of microstructure and hardness on the abrasion resistance of steels: high-stress abrasion, alumina abrasive. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 13 Influence of microstructure on abrasive wear behavior of alloy white irons...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Metallic Materials , Z. Metallkd. , Vol 69 , 1978 , p 643 – 650 26. Zum Gahr K.-H. and Doane D.V. , Optimizing Fracture Toughness and Abrasion Resistance in White Cast Irons , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 11 , 1980 , p 613 – 620 10.1007/BF02670698 27. Czichos H...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... metal 153, 185, 141, 146, 156, 1129 155, 143, 130, 140, 131 Weld bead on inner surface 430, 426, 401 Weld bead on outer surface 366, 385, 397 Discussion The spring hanger was made from ferritic malleable cast iron. This is, of course, produced by the heat treatment of a white iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ]. While pearlitic white cast iron, martensitic cast iron, and austenitic manganese steel are all abrasion-resistant materials, martensitic cast irons may wear more slowly than the other materials under heavy blows or high compressive and structural stresses of crusher jaws. However, crusher jaws produced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...). Iron (II) and (III) can be detected in the resulting acid solution using standard ferricyanide and thiocyanate tests. Addition of a solution of oxalate to the test solution after buffering with excess sodium acetate yields a white precipitate if calcium is present. These qualitative chemical assays...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Steam Navigation Company. This latter company was better known as the White Star Line, named after the company pennant, a white star on a red field. The White Star Line was owned by the International Mercantile Marine Company, which was controlled by J.P. Morgan. After their meal, the two men planned...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../brownish-black iron (III) oxides (goethite, magnetite, maghemite, hematite) 0.04–0.2 0.0016–0.008 Anaerobic corrosion (H + as electron acceptor) Pasty or dispersed white iron (II) carbonate (siderite) 0.002–0.01 (general corrosion) 0.00008–0.0004 (general corrosion) Anaerobic microbiologically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 13 – 28 10.1016/0043-1648(82)90041-2 25. Yang Y. , Fang H. , Zheng Y. , Yang Z. , and Jiang Z. , The Failure Models Induced by White Layers during Impact Wear , Wear , Vol 185 , 1995 , p 17 – 22 10.1016/0043-1648(94)06586-1 26. Zhang B. , Liu Y...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... at temperatures above 1130 °C. The likely source of the carbon was the extruded polyethylene and/or hydrocarbon product. Also present in the white region are cracks, consistent with the low ductility of eutectic iron. Region 2 consists of coarse and finegrained HAZs. The microstructure in Region 2 near the white...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... All as-polished Fig. 4 Microstructures of the cracked casting. (a) Ferrite/pearlite matrix is representative of the cracked casting. 100x. (b) Structure of cracked casting adjacent to the gas defect. The white constituents in the dark pearlite zone are carbides. White regions in the fine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A steel splice plate in a power transmission line tower cracked while in service. Metallographic analysis indicated the presence of a white hard martensite layer near the crack, which occurred in the heel of the plate. Mechanical property tests revealed localized hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... appeared white under brightfield microscope illumination. Initially, thresholding was done by selecting a video level to capture both the carbide and retained austenite phases, and the overall volume fraction ( i.e. , carbide plus retained austenite) was determined for a particular microscopic field...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0092155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., as measured using a Knoop indenter, was equivalent to 50 HRC, substantially lower than the required value of 58 HRC. Microstructure of the cases and cores of the two components was examined at 500× on polished sections etched in 2% nital. There was a white layer (nitrogen-rich iron nitride, Fe 2 N) about...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... resin. The arrows point to a white-etching iron nitride layer at the surface that probably would not have been observed if the specimen was nickel plated for edge protection. Specimen etched with nital Fig. 7 Good edge retention obtained in a cast epoxy mount containing soft ceramic shot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... for this simple type of assembly. How Failure Could Have Been Prevented Zinc white paste usually has a 90% powdered oxide base with a 10% oil vehicle. Such a paste was apparently used to lubricate the iron ball-float rod so that it would screw into the ball more easily. Hydrocarbon oils...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... This indication can be seen clearly in x-ray radiography film ( Figure 2 ). This picture was taken by mean of photographing the x-ray film when it is mounted on a film viewer. Fig. 2 X-ray radiography film of J-2 joint. The picture shows several pits (black circle) around the welding protrusion (one white...