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Weld decay

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Weld-decay and stress-corrosion cracking developed in several similar all-welded vessels fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. During a periodic examination cracks were revealed at the external surface of one of the vessels. External patch welds had been applied...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... tanks Weld decay Welded joints Austenitic stainless steel Intergranular corrosion “Weld decay” is the term commonly applied to a form of intergranular corrosion to which certain austenitic steels are susceptible, particularly after being heated in the range 550–850°C. The effect first showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to the weld or a short distance from it and on alternate sides. Microscopical examination did not reveal any intergranular carbide precipitation, such as is well known to result in the weld-decay mode of failure. It was concluded that the primary cause of failure was stress-corrosion cracking arising from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... itself originated from the external side of the plate, i.e. from the region covered by the shrouding ring. They were predominantly of the transgranular type. Because the cracks were not of the intergranular type as usually found with weld decay, they were considered to be indicative of stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that was kept in storage for 1 year Clear evidence of sensitization was found in areas where IGSCC occurred. Sensitization was extensive in the dished end that had been exposed to sodium at high temperature, and it occurred in a narrow band similar to that typical of weld decay in the dished end that had been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...—a condition which could arise in a casting. An analogous effect also occurs during welding, hence the use of the term weld decay to describe corrosion of this form in fabricated articles. It is usual, in steels of weldable quality, to add titanium or niobium, the so-called “stabilising elements” which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... , Rashad R. : Failure investigation of secondary super-heater tubes in a power boiler . Eng. Fail. Anal. 16 , 433 – 448 ( 2009 ) 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2008.06.024 20. Kokawa H. : Weld decay-resistant austenitic stainless steel by grain boundary engineering . J. Mater. Sci. 40...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... temperature cycles calculated to be from 400 to 30 deg C (752 to 86 deg F). The window was activated to >200 Sv/h. It was determined through analysis using remote handling techniques and hot cells that the crack initiated near a spot weld used to affix thermocouples to the window surface. In addition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... compensated by stabilizing elements. Summary The authors examined a stainless steel pipeline, used in a marine environment, which showed decay along the weldings. These defects were evidenced by means of metallographic and electrochemical examination. The probable causes of the corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The cracks are associated with fabrication welds and are driven by the residual stresses in the weld heat-affected zones. Later tank designs include a postfabrication stress relief anneal, and no cracking has been observed in the new tanks. The residual stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (1000 psi) and are made of steel pipes welded or mechanically coupled together. Since the 1940s, all of the lines have been assembled by welding. The third type of pipeline is a gas-distribution line that mainly transports natural gas within cities at pressures that vary from several tens of pounds per...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the corrosion process by the rapid regeneration of MnO 2 ( Eq 10 ) ( Ref 28 ). Manganese-oxidizing organisms have been implicated in the MIC of 304L stainless steel welds ( Ref 29 ). Formation of manganic oxide ennobles the potential of stainless steel in natural waters ( Ref 30 ). Ennoblement shifts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and local metal loss, blisters and laminations, weld misalignment and shell distortion, cracklike flaws, and fire damage. By using the guide, results of an FFS assessment can be applied in making run-repair-replace decisions for potentially damaged equipment. In addition to API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 ( Ref 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...., casting, forging) as well as how the component was fabricated (e.g., hot or cold working) Any joining process used (e.g., welding, brazing) The heat treatment of the material, including whether components were stress relieved after cold work, and the expected mechanical properties The finishing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for changes that influences both the microstructure and also residual stress profile. Results have indicated that martensitic decay is possible for long duration tests and high toughness of bearing material of acceptable hardness leads to high RCF life in both accelerated and field tests. The correct...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for research would be to compute from first principles the decay in the maximum stress (σ max ) as a function of cycle number. In a very approximate way, this can be attempted by assuming that the coarsening kinetics follow the classical ripening equation and that dislocation motion is controlled by Orowan...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... materials such as gold plating are usually applied to prevent the formation of insulating oxide debris. However, when the coating is worn out and the interface reaches the nonnoble copper alloy substrate, insulating oxide debris is formed and the electrical conductivity is decayed. The durability...