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Weld decay

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Weld-decay and stress-corrosion cracking developed in several similar all-welded vessels fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. During a periodic examination cracks were revealed at the external surface of one of the vessels. External patch welds had been applied at these and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Storage tanks Weld decay Welded joints Austenitic stainless steel Intergranular corrosion “Weld decay” is the term commonly applied to a form of intergranular corrosion to which certain austenitic steels are susceptible, particularly after being heated in the range 550–850°C. The effect first...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... vessel that was kept in storage for 1 year Clear evidence of sensitization was found in areas where IGSCC occurred. Sensitization was extensive in the dished end that had been exposed to sodium at high temperature, and it occurred in a narrow band similar to that typical of weld decay in the dished end...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... adjacent to the weld or a short distance from it and on alternate sides. Microscopical examination did not reveal any intergranular carbide precipitation, such as is well known to result in the weld-decay mode of failure. It was concluded that the primary cause of failure was stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... itself originated from the external side of the plate, i.e. from the region covered by the shrouding ring. They were predominantly of the transgranular type. Because the cracks were not of the intergranular type as usually found with weld decay, they were considered to be indicative of stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Studies have revealed that virtually all grades of austenitic stainless steels, and Ni-based alloys are susceptible to SCC given the right environment and conditions [ 5 ]. Since large storage tanks and vessels are usually fabricated by welding, there always exists great chances of weld decay (also called...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
....-%) and not being compensated by stabilizing elements. The authors examined a stainless steel pipeline, used in a marine environment, which showed decay along the weldings. These defects were evidenced by means of metallographic and electrochemical examination. The probable causes of the corrosion and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... temperature cycles calculated to be from 400 to 30 deg C (752 to 86 deg F). The window was activated to >200 Sv/h. It was determined through analysis using remote handling techniques and hot cells that the crack initiated near a spot weld used to affix thermocouples to the window surface. In addition to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... cooled through this range—a condition which could arise in a casting. An analogous effect also occurs during welding, hence the use of the term weld decay to describe corrosion of this form in fabricated articles. It is usual, in steels of weldable quality, to add titanium or niobium, the so-called...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-corrosion cracking (SCC). The cracks are associated with fabrication welds and are driven by the residual stresses in the weld heat-affected zones. Later tank designs include a postfabrication stress relief anneal, and no cracking has been observed in the new tanks. The residual stress pattern in the type I...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of pipe interrupted only by valves at roughly 16-km (10-mile) spacings and compression stations (gas lines) or pumping stations (liquid lines) at 80- to 160-km (50- to 100-mile) spacings. High-pressure lines generally operate at pressures up to 6895 kPa (1000 psi) and are made of steel pipes welded...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ( Eq 10 ) ( Ref 28 ). Manganese-oxidizing organisms have been implicated in the MIC of 304L stainless steel welds ( Ref 29 ). Formation of manganic oxide ennobles the potential of stainless steel in natural waters ( Ref 30 ). Ennoblement shifts the potential above the repassivation potential to the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...) as well as how the component was fabricated (e.g., hot or cold working) Any joining process used (e.g., welding, brazing) The heat treatment of the material, including whether components were stress relieved after cold work, and the expected mechanical properties The finishing processes (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the microstructure and also residual stress profile. Results have indicated that martensitic decay is possible for long duration tests and high toughness of bearing material of acceptable hardness leads to high RCF life in both accelerated and field tests. The correct choice of tribometer is also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... plating are usually applied to prevent the formation of insulating oxide debris. However, when the coating is worn out and the interface reaches the nonnoble copper alloy substrate, insulating oxide debris is formed and the electrical conductivity is decayed. The durability of the electrical contact...