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Weld cracking

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Penetration by molten copper occurred in the economizer of a large water-tube boiler. A cross section through a weld and the crack in the tube revealed a crack was an intergranular fissure. Small fissures of the same type also extended from its flanks. The main fissure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A welded ferritic stainless steel heat exchanger cracked prior to service. The welding filler metal was identified as an austenitic stainless steel and the joining method as gas tungsten arc welding. Investigation (visual inspection, SEM images, 5.9x images, and 8.9x/119x...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract An HK-40 alloy tubing weld in a reformer furnace of a petrochemical plant failed by leaking after a shorter time than that predicted by design specifications. Leaking occurred because of cracks that passed through the thickness of the weldment. Analysis of the cracked tubing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Two AISI type 316 stainless steel dished ends failed through the formation of intergranular stress-corrosion cracks (IGSCC) within a few months of service. The dished ends failed in the straight portions near the circumferential welds that joined the ends to the cylindrical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... using standard vertical down stove pipe-welding procedures with E7010 cellulosic electrodes. The crack started partially as a result of incomplete fusion on the pipe side wall, which in turn was a result of misalignment of the two pipes. The crack was typical of hydrogen cracking. Girth welds can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Weld-decay and stress-corrosion cracking developed in several similar all-welded vessels fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. During a periodic examination cracks were revealed at the external surface of one of the vessels. External patch welds had been applied...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract An outer fan-duct assembly of titanium alloy Ti-5Al-2.5Sn (AMS 4910) for a gas-turbine fan section cracked 75 mm (3 in.) circumferentially through a repair weld in an arc weld in the front flange-duct segment. Examination of the crack with a binocular microscope revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract An aircraft fuel-nozzle-support assembly exhibited cracks along the periphery of a fusion weld that attached a support arm to a fairing in a joint that approximated a T-shape in cross section. The base metal was type 321 stainless steel. Examination showed a good-quality weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0047529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...Abstract Abstract A weld that attached the head to the shell of a preheater containing steam at 1.4 MPa (200 psi) and was used in the manufacture of paper cracked in service. The original joint contained a 6.4 by 50 mm backing ring that had been tack welded to the inside surface of the shell...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and tested. It was determined that the gusset plates failed in the heat-affected zone via an intergranular microcracking mode due to hydrogen-assisted underbead and toe-weld cracking. Proper nondestructive testing techniques for magnetic particle and radiographic inspection of the plate-weld gusset areas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A number of seamless pipe nipples of 70 mm diam and 3.5 mm wall thickness made of steel type 35.8 were oxyacetylene welded to collectors of greater wall thickness with a round bead. X-ray examination showed crack initiation in the interior of the nipples close to the root...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract The onset of leakage adjacent to two butt welds in a 2 in. bore pipe was traced to the development of fine cracks. The pipe carried 40% sodium hydroxide solution. The actual temperature was not known, but the pipeline was steam traced at a pressure of 30 psi, equivalent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001744
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract Two examples involved brittle fracture promoted by small fatigue cracks owing to welding deficiencies. Other parts involving inadequate welding were a ski-wheel axle flange, ski fitting (brackets), and undercarriage shock strut stub assembly. In an attach fitting for an engine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract A fuel-nozzle-support assembly showed transverse indications after fluorescent liquid-penetrant inspection of a repair-welded area at a fillet on the front side of the support neck adjacent to the mounting flange. Visual examination disclosed an irregular crack. The crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c0048087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
...Abstract Abstract Several of the welds in a hoist carriage tram-rail assembly fabricated by shielded metal arc welding the leg of a large T-section 1020 steel beam to the leg of a smaller T-section 1050 steel rail failed in one portion of the assembly. Four weld cracks and several indefinite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Welded joints Wire Cold-drawn steel Ductile fracture A steel wire of 2.3 mm diameter broke during cable twisting. The fracture occurred obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the wire and showed a constriction at the end. Therefore it was a ductile fracture. File mark type work defects were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Welds in two CMo steel catalytic gas-oil desulfurizer reactors cracked under hydrogen pressure-temperature conditions that would not have been predicted by the June 1977 revision of the Nelson Curve for that material. Evidence of severe cracking was found in five weld-joint...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion failure occurred in a titanium clad tubesheet because of a corrosive tube-side gas-liquid mixture leaking through fatigue cracks in the seal welds at tube-to-tubesheet joints. The tubesheet was a carbon steel plate clad with titanium on the tube side face. The seal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract Two aircraft-engine tailpipes of 19-9 DL stainless steel (AISI type 651) developed cracks along longitudinal gas tungsten arc butt welds after being in service for more than 1000 h. Binocular-microscope examination of the cracks in both tailpipes revealed granular, brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... and an external fillet weld. Cracking was found to be apparent on the tank surface, adjacent to the coupling weld. Chlorine, carbon, and oxygen in addition to the base metal elements were revealed by energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometric analysis. A great number of secondary, branching cracks were evident...