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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract The defects observed along weldings of stainless steel pipelines employed in marine environments were evidenced by metallographic and electrochemical examination. A compilation of cases on the effect of defective weldings, in addition to improper choice of stainless steel for water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... components made of different alloys in the same valve, but this is not the best approach for all applications. Dezincification Valves Water pipelines Leaded red brass Silicon brass Dealloying/selective leaching Galvanic corrosion After six years of service, three water valves on a copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... system pressure. Submerged arc welding Water pipelines Welded joints Welding defects 1020 UNS G10200 Joining-related failures The spiral-welded pipe in question was 10 in. in diameter and carried water under pressure. Numerous leaks were discovered in a section about 4 miles long...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in service. The filler metal used was not resistant to the conditions to which it was exposed. Copper welding rods as per BS 1077 or a Cu-Ag-P brazing alloy as recommended in BS 699, would have been preferable. Dezincification Filler metals Materials selection Water pipelines Welded joints 60Cu...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of pipe were joined by shielded metal arc welding. Soundness of the welded joints was determined by water back-pressure testing after several lengths of pipe had been installed and joined. Before completion of the pipeline, a pressure drop was observed during back-pressure testing. An extreme depression...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
.... It was concluded that pitting corrosion was a result of the corrosive waters supplied by the local water utility. Waters could be rendered non-pitting by increasing their pH to 8 or higher and neutralizing the free carbon dioxide. pH Water chemistry Water pipelines Copper pipe Pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... This covered a total period of 5 months. All pipework was hydrotested using untreated borehole water supplied to the site through 17 km (11 mi), 115 mm (4.5 in.) diam carbon steel pipework. The borehole water was resident in the pipelines for 2 months, but no water quality/corrosion monitoring was undertaken...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of corrosion monitoring and poor water quality. Pipe replacement and a regular water testing program were recommended. Monitoring Water pipelines Water treatment Steel pipe Uniform corrosion Crevice corrosion Biological corrosion A shopping mall in South Carolina was originally constructed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... by oxygen concentration cells and oxygen-pitting related corrosion. Both types of corrosion are due to the poor quality of the water and the lack of corrosion control in the water system. Water chemistry Water heaters Water pipelines Water treatment ASTM A106 UNS K03006 Crevice corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... test results from the steel mill, procedure qualification tests of the welding, and design changes to reduce water hammer were also recommended. Impact toughness Notch sensitivity Pipe joints Pipe Water pipelines Welding parameters ASTM A283 grade D UNS K02702 Joining-related failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) pipeline supplied brackish water to a water treatment overflow reservoir used to house sewage when the treatment facility experienced overload. The pipeline operated on at least a weekly basis or when there was a heavy rainfall. Unbeknownst to the operator, a bypass section of the pipeline was partially...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...-1.2Mn Stress-corrosion cracking Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Introduction In the fall of 1978, a natural gas pipeline ruptured, and subsequently, the escaping gas was ignited, apparently by a hot water heater pilot light in a nearby trailer park. The resultant fire burned for over one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... with a soft nylon brush using water and a mild detergent or alcohol is often sufficient to remove surface debris and lightly adhering corrosion products. Specific solvents may be beneficial for removing hydrocarbon contamination, and ultrasonic baths can be used for more tightly adhering deposits. Inhibited...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... effects are of significant concern in failure analysis and prevention. Microbially induced corrosion problems afflict water-handling operations and manufacturing processes in oil and gas production, pipelining, refining, petrochemical synthesis, power production, fermentation, waste water treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by the corrosion process to produce insoluble black iron sulfide. Traditional models for predicting MIC in liquid pipelines in the oil and gas sector made the presence of iron sulfide at significant concentrations (>10 ╬╝g/cm 2 ) on the steel surface a prerequisite for MIC ( Ref 24 , 25 ). In waters where...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... coating by grit blasting after the leakage was observed. The failed pipe as received for failure analysis is shown in Fig. 2 . Visual inspection revealed metal loss apparently resulting from erosion caused by the water jetting out of the cracks. No mechanical damage was seen anywhere on the pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... ), Therefore it consisted of iron sulfide. The blisters gave off gas under considerable pressure when drilled open under acidic water. The gas contained 89.4% H 2 , 2.4% CO 2 , 7.0% N 2 and 1.7% O 2 . If the nitrogen-oxygen mixture that probably consists of air which penetrated during the capture of the gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is due to the entrainment of condensed water droplets from the heater. These conditions resulted in erosion on the first elbow downstream of the orifice and then led to the pinhole leak. An enlarged view in Fig. 11 shows the geometry of the erosion hole in the elbow. This hole was situated at an angle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... carbon dioxide dissolved in water condensed from the gas stream, with organic acids possibly an aggravating factor. A gas analysis showed no other corrosive agents. No metallurgical or fabrication defects were found in the carbon steel part. The mode of attack was corrosion-erosion, caused...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... square inch to a few inches of water where a line enters a home. This article will not discuss failures associated with these latter lines, but will address only the high-pressure gathering and transmission lines. The steels that have been used in the United States for line pipe range in yield...