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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Certified test results from the steel mill, procedure qualification tests of the welding, and design changes to reduce water hammer were also recommended. Impact toughness Notch sensitivity Pipe joints Pipe Water pipelines Welding parameters ASTM A283 grade D UNS K02702 Joining-related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... history was provided. This covered a total period of 5 months. All pipework was hydrotested using untreated borehole water supplied to the site through 17 km (11 mi), 115 mm (4.5 in.) diam carbon steel pipework. The borehole water was resident in the pipelines for 2 months, but no water quality/corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as received for failure analysis is shown in Fig. 2 . Visual inspection revealed metal loss apparently resulting from erosion caused by the water jetting out of the cracks. No mechanical damage was seen anywhere on the pipe. It is possible that the evidence of mechanical damage has been lost due to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... because of one or more of the following reasons. Improper shutdown resulting in exposure of components to atmosphere. Oxygen and water originating from steam or wash water used to free components of hydrocarbons before inspection or steam purges and water sprays used during regeneration of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... supplied brackish water to a water treatment overflow reservoir used to house sewage when the treatment facility experienced overload. The pipeline operated on at least a weekly basis or when there was a heavy rainfall. Unbeknownst to the operator, a bypass section of the pipeline was partially filled with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... low flow where surface deposits can collect ( Fig. 10 ). Microbiologically influenced corrosion has been found in refineries, cooling-water systems, sprinkler systems, potable water-distribution networks, oilfield water-handling systems, oil pipelines, pulp and paper mills, and so on but not in steam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... summarized in Table 5 . The mechanism of LDI erosion is known to be caused by impingement of a highly accelerated steam flow (280 m/s, or 920 ft/s) at the orifice, which is due to the entrainment of condensed water droplets from the heater. These conditions resulted in erosion on the first elbow downstream...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... rotor (impeller). The case was lined with a two-piece removable natural rubber liner. The ductile iron rotor core was covered by cast natural rubber, forming a one-piece integral unit. The pump used a John Crane packing seal without flush water (environmental regulatory concerns make use of flush...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... material is more corrosion resistant (i.e., more noble). Fig. 3 Galvanic series of metals and alloys in seawater. Alloys are listed in order of the potential they exhibit in flowing seawater; those indicated by a black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... water contained caustic soda (NaOH) or the boiler water chemistry was conducive to the formation of caustic soda ( Ref 4 ). In their 1926 paper, “The Cause and Prevention of Embrittlement of Boiler Plate,” researchers at the University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station concluded, “The results...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cathodic reaction is the evolution of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4. This also applies to corrosion in other acids, such as sulfuric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids, such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active; the other ions, such as sulfate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conditions or in relatively aggressive environments such as saline water due to deicing salts and dirt ( Fig. 1b ), and ore chutes in mineral-processing plants, where moist ore particles slide on an inclined platform and chute. Note that the example in Fig. 1(b) can also be considered as sliding wear in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and quenching in water or brine to room temperature; the amount increases with increase in carbon content. In hypereutectoid steels, etching in Vilella's reagent, rather than the more normally used picral, allows the martensite plates to be seen more clearly and the retained austenite, which remains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... readily available during the production, processing, and service of metals from operations such as: Refining (precipitates upon solidification from supersaturated concentrations) Acid cleaning (pickling) Electroplating Contact with water or other hydrogen-containing liquids or gases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... propellers; high-speed lubricated sliding bearings Corrosive wear Wear conjoint with corrosion, as in a metal bushing versus a shaft immersed in water Rolling wear occurs when two bodies roll one over the other. Some sliding always occurs in the contact region. Wear may occur by rolling-sliding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... gearbox virtually disappeared from its foundation, with the result that the fractured parts were thrown all over the works, some being projected through the lantern-light in the roof as shown in Figure 2 , while the pinion buried itself in the wall of an adjacent water tube boiler. One rim of the gear...