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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... for water pipelines, lead to the conclusion that intercrystalline corrosion in steels involved precipitation of a surplus phase at grain boundaries. Intercrystalline corrosion in austenitic stainless steels due to precipitation of chromium carbides during conditions generated due to welding and ways...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Lengths of pipe were joined by shielded metal arc welding. Soundness of the welded joints was determined by water back-pressure testing after several lengths of pipe had been installed and joined. Before completion of the pipeline, a pressure drop was observed during back-pressure testing. An extreme...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... months. All pipework was hydrotested using untreated borehole water supplied to the site through 17 km (11 mi), 115 mm (4.5 in.) diam carbon steel pipework. The borehole water was resident in the pipelines for 2 months, but no water quality/corrosion monitoring was undertaken. All tanks were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to use components made of different alloys in the same valve, but this is not the best approach for all applications. Dezincification Valves Water pipelines Leaded red brass Silicon brass Dealloying/selective leaching Galvanic corrosion After six years of service, three water valves...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... as the reported maximum system pressure. Submerged arc welding Water pipelines Welded joints Welding defects 1020 UNS G10200 Joining-related failures The spiral-welded pipe in question was 10 in. in diameter and carried water under pressure. Numerous leaks were discovered in a section about 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of cracking in service. The filler metal used was not resistant to the conditions to which it was exposed. Copper welding rods as per BS 1077 or a Cu-Ag-P brazing alloy as recommended in BS 699, would have been preferable. Dezincification Filler metals Materials selection Water pipelines Welded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... supply. It was concluded that pitting corrosion was a result of the corrosive waters supplied by the local water utility. Waters could be rendered non-pitting by increasing their pH to 8 or higher and neutralizing the free carbon dioxide. pH Water chemistry Water pipelines Copper pipe Pitting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of corrosion monitoring and poor water quality. Pipe replacement and a regular water testing program were recommended. Monitoring Water pipelines Water treatment Steel pipe Uniform corrosion Crevice corrosion Biological corrosion A shopping mall in South Carolina was originally constructed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... by oxygen concentration cells and oxygen-pitting related corrosion. Both types of corrosion are due to the poor quality of the water and the lack of corrosion control in the water system. Water chemistry Water heaters Water pipelines Water treatment ASTM A106 UNS K03006 Crevice corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... lines. Certified test results from the steel mill, procedure qualification tests of the welding, and design changes to reduce water hammer were also recommended. Impact toughness Notch sensitivity Pipe joints Pipe Water pipelines Welding parameters ASTM A283 grade D UNS K02702 Joining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 103. Romero J.M. , Angeles-Chavez C. , Martinez L. , and Amaya M. , Localized Biological Corrosion of X52 Steel Exposed within Sea Water Pipelines , Br. Corros. J. , Vol 37 ( No. 2 ), 2002 , p 117 – 121 10.1179/000705902225004365 104. Islam M. , Abraham S...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... stainless steel (UNS S31603) bypass pipeline experienced multiple failures after only 8 months of service. The 24 in. (61 cm) pipeline supplied brackish water to a water treatment overflow reservoir used to house sewage when the treatment facility experienced overload. The pipeline operated on at least...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., and subsequently, the escaping gas was ignited, apparently by a hot water heater pilot light in a nearby trailer park. The resultant fire burned for over one hour before the line was finally shut off. The effect of the fire was to alter the metallurgical evidence to such a degree as to obscure in part the primary...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that microbiological effects are of significant concern in failure analysis and prevention. Microbially induced corrosion problems afflict water-handling operations and manufacturing processes in oil and gas production, pipelining, refining, petrochemical synthesis, power production, fermentation, waste water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by Water Droplet Impingement and Life Prediction of Industrial Materials, Part 2: Establishment of Predictive Equations and Evaluation of Material Performance , Zairyo-to-Kankyo (Corros. Eng.) , Vol 57 , 2008 , p 146 – 152 10.3323/jcorr.57.146 26. Ahmad M. , Casey M. , and Sürken...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... from erosion caused by the water jetting out of the cracks. No mechanical damage was seen anywhere on the pipe. It is possible that the evidence of mechanical damage has been lost due to erosion. The primary crack as seen in Fig. 3 is transverse to the spiral weld, and it was measured to be 8...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of slurry pipelines. Sacrificial electrodes, such as zinc plugs in water or slurry pumps, have been used to cathodically protect the pump casing. This means of protection may be applicable to other instances where it is economically feasible. Research has shown that computer modeling is becoming...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... ), Therefore it consisted of iron sulfide. The blisters gave off gas under considerable pressure when drilled open under acidic water. The gas contained 89.4% H 2 , 2.4% CO 2 , 7.0% N 2 and 1.7% O 2 . If the nitrogen-oxygen mixture that probably consists of air which penetrated during the capture of the gas...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Corrosion failures can initiate from either the inside or the outside surface of the pipe. Corrosion on the inside is generally associated with water in the pipe, which most commonly occurs in gathering pipelines where H 2 S and CO 2 may also be present. Corrosion frequently takes place in the form...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the deterioration of buried infrastructure such as pipelines in the United States. Figure 4 shows the result of an unexpected corrosion failure of a 100-year-old riveted steel water transmission main. The snowplow and icing of the power lines in the photograph indicate that repairs had to be made under less than...