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Water chemistry

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Failures occurred in admiralty brass condenser tubes in a nuclear plant cooled by freshwater. About 2500 tubes had to be replaced over a span of six years. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, water chemistry (for both intake and outfall), and corrosion products in the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... conclusion that that the deposits formed at locations that experienced steam blanketing or dryout at the higher levels of the steam generators. Recommendations included steam generator water-chemistry controls, chemical cleaning, and reduction of the primary reactor coolant system temperature. Electric...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Nineteen out of 26 bolts in a multistage water pump corroded and cracked after a short time in a severe working environment containing saline water, CO 2 , and H 2 S. The failed bolts and intact nuts were to be made from a special type of stainless steel as per ASTM A 193 B8S and A 194...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... mills Heat exchanger tubes Metallography Optical microscopy Pulverized coal Water chemistry Copper tube Pitting corrosion A straight-tube cooler type heat exchanger had been in service for about 10 years serving a coal pulverizer in Central Georgia. Non-potable cooling water from a local lake...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... chemical for the boiler feed water. Alkaline corrosion PH Water chemistry SAE 192 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Unscheduled shutdowns occurred in boilers No. 1 and No. 3 from a bank of six boiler units in a refinery, due to failure of the horizontal support tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... factors, and considerable progress has been made in controlling IGSCC in BWR piping. Several approaches have been demonstrated as effective, including the use of resistant materials, residual stress improvement to eliminate or reduce residual tensile stresses, and better control of water chemistry. 8...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as fine branched transgranular cracks, and the cooling water chemistry are all consistent with chloride SCC. The leaks in the condenser were the result of chloride SCC of the Grade 316L stainless steel spiral element within the condenser. The configuration of the spiral element, fabricated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., sulfates, ammonia, and nitrates, since water chemistry can change with time. The water with the lowest amounts of these corrosive chemicals should be used for the oil coolers. ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... documented that bacteria use phosphorous chemistry in their energy processes [ 4 ]. During a cursory review of the water treatment history, high levels of free chlorine (>0.5 ppm) were present on numerous occasions. When chlorine is added to prevent bacteria growth it combines with copper azole inhibitors...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the specified pressure level. The investigation led to the belief that during various stages of fabrication and inspection, the CaO-based inclusions came into contact with water and thereby dissolved. Although this scenario seems both simple and surprising, it is the only one that seems plausible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cavities. The copper and nickel are possible indicators of corrosion in water circuit heat exchangers. Fig. 10 Typical results of in situ EDS analyses at the base of shrinkage voids in the impeller The bulk metal hardness of the impeller was measured using the Rockwell test. All of the bulk...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... steel is not a suitable material for this application, and materials that resist SCC, such as Inconel, should be considered. Biocide treatment Water chemistry 304 UNS S30400 Stress-corrosion cracking Four hanger rods removed from a cooling tower at a southeastern utility were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... treatment indicated that the boiler water chemistry included a chelant-polymer program with softened makeup water. Analysis of the boiler operation revealed that operational changes made in the last year of service caused an increase in the velocity of the steam/water mixture. Longitudinal cross...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... potential for water carryover or feedwater induction into the turbine be addressed via an engineering evaluation of the plant's water treatment procedures, steam separation equipment, and start-up procedures. Chlorides Feedwater Turbine blades Water chemistry ASTM A470 grade 4 UNS K22878 Pitting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A cast silicon bronze (UNS C86700) impeller that had been severely corroded was submitted for failure analysis. The failed part was used to pump potable water, but service life and chlorine content of the water were unknown. The impeller displayed a Cu-rich red phase on its surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract One inch diam Type 304 stainless steel piping was designed to carry containment atmosphere samples to an analyzer to monitor hydrogen and oxygen levels during operational and the design basis accident conditions that are postulated to occur in a boiling water reactor. Only one of six...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) 84 (85) barg (A) Feed water temp. Eco. Inlet (from 50% MCR up to MCR) 235 °C Boiler water pH value 9.5–10.5 Firing system Crude oil and B–C oil firing The boiler feed water and its chemistry are important contributing factors in the promotion of waterside corrosion and influencing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in the 1960's and were moved between the basins as needed. The units provided some water chemistry control, but they were not operated continuously. The primary purpose of these early deionizers was to control any radioactivity in the basin water. There were some indications of corrosion of fuel over...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... deionizers were portable units installed in the 1960's and were moved between the basins as needed. The units provided some water chemistry control, but they were not operated continuously. There were some indications of corrosion over the years, but no major problems as the fuel never stayed in the basins...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A sprinkler head unit that was installed in a smoking lounge of a multi story office building in 1975 failed, causing substantial water damage. There was no fire in the building. A set of four sprinkler heads -- three that had been installed in 1975 (the failed unit, an unfailed unit...