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Water chemistry

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Failures occurred in admiralty brass condenser tubes in a nuclear plant cooled by freshwater. About 2500 tubes had to be replaced over a span of six years. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, water chemistry (for both intake and outfall), and corrosion products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the conclusion that that the deposits formed at locations that experienced steam blanketing or dryout at the higher levels of the steam generators. Recommendations included steam generator water-chemistry controls, chemical cleaning, and reduction of the primary reactor coolant system temperature. Electric...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0047615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... cracking were ground and repair welded. The square corners of the fins were trimmed back with a gradual taper so that expansion strains would be more gradually transferred to the tube surface. Water chemistry was closely evaluated and monitored, especially with regard to oxygen content. Boiler tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
.... It was concluded that pitting corrosion was a result of the corrosive waters supplied by the local water utility. Waters could be rendered non-pitting by increasing their pH to 8 or higher and neutralizing the free carbon dioxide. pH Water chemistry Water pipelines Copper pipe Pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... exchanger tubes Metallography Optical microscopy Pulverized coal Water chemistry Copper tube Pitting corrosion A straight-tube cooler type heat exchanger had been in service for about 10 years serving a coal pulverizer in Central Georgia. Non-potable cooling water from a local lake, passed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of 9.0 and 200 ppm of sodium sulfite should be added to the water. pH Purging Water chemistry Water treatment ASME SA276 Pitting corrosion A resistance-welded carbon steel superheater tube made to ASME SA-276 specifications failed by pitting corrosion and subsequent perforation ( Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... by oxygen concentration cells and oxygen-pitting related corrosion. Both types of corrosion are due to the poor quality of the water and the lack of corrosion control in the water system. Water chemistry Water heaters Water pipelines Water treatment ASTM A106 UNS K03006 Crevice corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c0047328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... operating stress was needed to cause cracks. No cracks appeared when corrosion inhibitor was added to the cooling water. Corrosion prevention Inhibitors Water chemistry Gray iron Corrosion fatigue On cylinder inserts from a water-cooled locomotive diesel engine, cracks formed on the water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... be associated with rupture of the oxide film and resulting crevice effects as well as upsets in boiler water chemistry and acid cleaning problems. Fig. 10 Fracture Surface - Note dark area corresponding to crack whose shape indicates propagation inside out. The occurrence of most failures near...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... steel is not a suitable material for this application, and materials that resist SCC, such as Inconel, should be considered. Biocide treatment Water chemistry 304 UNS S30400 Stress-corrosion cracking Background Four hanger rods removed from a cooling tower at a southeastern utility...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of corrosion at surfaces other than the punctured region suggested that proper water chemistry and flow conditions were maintained. From the topography/morphology of the region around the puncture and the localized nature of attack, it is obvious that failure occurred because of dissolution under deposits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of 26 bolts in a multistage water pump corroded and cracked after a short time in a severe working environment containing saline water, CO 2 , and H 2 S. The failed bolts and intact nuts were to be made from a special type of stainless steel as per ASTM A 193 B8S and A 194. However, the investigation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the boiler was taken out of service. The presence of the heavy scale on the steam side of the tube facing the furnace indicates that scale deposition had been taking place for quite some time. The deposition of scale on the inner side of the tube may be either due to the incorrect water chemistry of the feed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to specifying and selecting the type of materials to be used at a facility. Local water chemistries vary significantly from city to city, throughout the domestic U.S. Data from local utilities should be obtained prior to the initiation of design and materials selection on a project. Materials selection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... water purification system. The reactor deionizers were portable units installed in the 1960's and were moved between the basins as needed. The units provided some water chemistry control, but they were not operated continuously. There were some indications of corrosion over the years, but no major...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... units installed in the 1960's and were moved between the basins as needed. The units provided some water chemistry control, but they were not operated continuously. The primary purpose of these early deionizers was to control any radioactivity in the basin water. There were some indications of corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... approaches have been demonstrated as effective, including the use of resistant materials, residual stress improvement to eliminate or reduce residual tensile stresses, and better control of water chemistry. 8 The use of more resistant materials requires the replacement of susceptible type 304 stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... (900 °F). Information regarding the water treatment indicated that the boiler water chemistry included a chelant-polymer program with softened makeup water. Analysis of the boiler operation revealed that operational changes made in the last year of service caused an increase in the velocity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... corrosive chemicals. The water should be tested now and continue to be tested periodically for chlorides, sulfates, ammonia, and nitrates, since water chemistry can change with time. The water with the lowest amounts of these corrosive chemicals should be used for the oil coolers. References References...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... water systems and treatment procedures, prior to specifying and selecting the type of materials to be used at a facility. Local water chemistries vary significantly from city to city, throughout the domestic U.S. Data from local utilities should be obtained prior to the initiation of design...