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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... was revealed by visual examination. Fatigue marks, emanating from multiple crack origins on the inside surface of the housing at the brazed joint were revealed by further study of the fracture. A poor metallurgical bond was confirmed by the presence of large irregular voids, flux trapped braze metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... properties. Grain boundary sliding and dislocation motion were enhanced, causing a local increase in the steady state strain rate and the premature failure of the tube. Grain boundary sliding Plastic deformation Spalling Voids HK UNS J94224 Creep fracture/stress rupture The petrochemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... occurred at welds and consisted of large subsurface void formations with pinhole penetrations of the surfaces. Corrosive attack initiated in the heat affected zones of the welds, usually immediately adjacent to fusion lines. Stepwise grinding, polishing, and etching through the affected areas revealed that...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... heating Scale (corrosion) Voids 80Ni-20Cr High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Heating elements, consisting of strips, 40 mm × 2 mm, of the widely used resistance heating alloy with 80% Ni and 20% Cr, and designed to withstand a temperature of 1175°C, were rendered unusable by scaling after a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and fracture. Next, the mechanisms of void nucleation and void coalescence are briefly described. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are then discussed for various specimen geometries (smooth cylindrical and prismatic) and loading conditions (e.g., tension...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... interdendritic in appearance compared to smoother, transgranular fatigue type fractures. Often, gross plastic yielding is visible on a macroscopic scale. Commonly observed microstructural characteristics include creep voiding along grain boundaries and/or interdendritic regions. Internal voids can also nucleate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... fractograph at 20,000x revealed fatigue striations and corrosion products on the fracture surface, indicating that this area was probably the site of fracture origin and that it had cracked before the accident happened. The casting on the right side of the drawbar contained large voids and a significant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001494
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... examination of the fractured leads revealed voids and some oxidized areas surrounded by ductile fracture areas. High pressure steam pockets observed as voids in the microstructure caused hydrogen embrittlement of the leads. The obvious corrective action was to ensure that the lead material was OFHC copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...-induced fractures made at room and elevated temperatures with the bracket failure. The service failure exhibited grain separation and loss of delineation of the grain boundaries due to melting. SEM revealed deep voids between grains and tendrils that connected grains, which resulted from surface tension...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... features such as voids, adiabatic shear, and structural surface alterations also indicate the explosion intensity and further allow a comparison of the tube structure near and away from the explosion zone. These, and other metallurgical characteristics, are illustrated and discussed for cases of accidental...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract The failure of a reformer tube furnace manifold has been examined using metallography. It has been shown that the cause of failure was thermal fatigue; the damage was characterized by the presence of voids produced by creep mechanisms operating during the high temperature cycle under...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., microcracks, and aligned damage centers which showed up as voids upon repeated polish-etch cycles. Because of the local nature of creep damage that can occur, any inspection that involves in situ metallography must be conducted at exactly the right or critical position or the presence of damage may not be...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...) was sound and free of voids and foreign material. Corrosion products contained a large quantity of sulfur. The probable cause of the attack was the presence of electrical current within the system, with sulfides a possible contributing factor. Elimination of residual magnetism and grounding of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Copper alloy (C83600) impellers from two different feed pumps that supplied water to a 2-year-old boiler failed repeatedly. Examination by various methods indicated that the failures were caused by sulfide attack that concentrated in shrinkage voids in the castings. Two alternatives to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Metallographic examination revealed creep voids near the rupture in addition to graphite nodules. Exposure of the SA209 Grade T1A steel tubing to a calculated mean operating temperature of 530 deg C (983 deg F) for the 13 years resulted in graphitization and subsequent creep failure in Tube 3. The deformation in...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Erosion of solid surfaces can be brought about solely by liquids in two ways: from damage induced by formation and subsequent collapse of voids or cavities within the liquid, and from high-velocity impacts between a solid surface and liquid droplets. The former process is called...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... surface of the die was covered with fatigue cracks and many fillets had been plastically deformed. Several other types of damage were also observed, including areas of oxidation, corrosion pits, voids, abrasive wear, die adhesion, and thermal fatigue. Fatigue cracking was the primary cause of failure with...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Microstructural and EDS analysis yielded evidence of overheating, revealing voids, scale, grain boundary oxidation, decarburization, and grain coarsening on the inner surface of the pipe, which also suggest the initiation of creep. Based on the information gathered during the investigation, the blow pipe was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., and 1% hydrocarbons at 40 deg C and 55 kPa during operation. Voids on the fracture surface and evidence of incomplete weld penetration were revealed by examination. Brittle fracture was indicated by the overall appearance through some fatigue beach marks were observed. Very narrow bands of high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... cracking observed in this alloy was caused during heat treating as the thread root served as an effective stress concentration and induced quench cracking. It was found that fracture in the overload region occurred by a ductile void growth and coalescence process. Premature failure of the threaded rod was...