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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Weld-decay and stress-corrosion cracking developed in several similar all-welded vessels fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. During a periodic examination cracks were revealed at the external surface of one of the vessels. External patch welds had been applied at these and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract In January 1965, a Reaction Control System (RCS) pressure vessel (titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V) on an Apollo spacecraft cracked in six adjacent locations. It used N2O4 for vehicle attitude control through roll, pitch, and yaw engines, and was protected from the N2O4 by a Teflon positive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the effect of using unsuitable alloys, metallurgical discontinuities, fabrication practices, and stress raisers on the failure of a pressure vessel. It provides information on pressure vessels made of composite materials and their welding practices. The article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... effect. The cases examined show that knowledge is incomplete in regard to graphitization, and the prediction of its occurrence is not yet possible. pressure vessels piping creep deformation cracking high temperatures low alloy steel cracking perforations metallographic analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract Following a fracture mechanics “fitness-for-purpose” analysis of petroleum industry cold service pressure vessels, using the British Standard PD 6493, it was realized that an analogous approach could be used for the failure analysis of a similar pressure vessel dome which had failed in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A process vessel heating coil, consisting of several 3 ft diam turns, was supplied with steam at 400 psi and a temperature of 343 deg C (650 deg F). At bi-weekly intervals well water was introduced to effect rapid cooling of the contents. After about eight months, leakage developed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract After about four years of service, cracks appeared on the internal or process-side surfaces of four evaporator pans in a sugar concentrator. The pans consisted of a Mo stabilized austenitic stainless steel inner vessel surrounded by a mild steel steam jacket. Corrosion of the external...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0048819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract A large pressure vessel that had been in service as a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) absorber developed cracks and began leaking at a nozzle. The vessel contained a 20% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH), potassium carbonate (K2CO3), and arsenic. The vessel wall was manufactured of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., about 2 in. long, developed at the approximate mid-length of the vessel, and allowed slow de-pressurization. Subsequent examination by radiography and ultrasonic means indicated the crack was associated with an irregularly shaped, laminar type of defect located within the wall of the vessel. It was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A chemical storage vessel failed while in service. The failure occurred as cracking through the vessel wall, resulting in leakage of the fluid. The tank had been molded from a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) resin. The material held within the vessel was an aromatic hydrocarbon-based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0046953
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A portion of the wall of a reactor vessel used in burning impurities from carbon particles failed by localized melting. The vessel was made of Hastelloy X (Ni-22Cr-9Mo-18Fe). Considering the service environment, melting could have been caused either by excessive carburization (which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A welded vessel made of acid resistant 18-8 steel used in a derusting operation started to leak after a long period due to the formation of cracks. The vessel was heated from the outside and did not come into direct contact with the flame. It was surrounded by a casing of unalloyed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Leakage which developed from two storage vessels handling a mixture of trimethyl formate and chloroform took place from the dished head at the edge of the circumferential weld to the shell which incorporated a backing ring. Some shallow pitting had occurred under the backing ring on...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A Ti-6Al-4V alloy pressure vessel failed during a proof-pressure test, fracturing along the center girth weld. The girth joints were welded with the automatic gas tungsten arc process utilizing an auxiliary trailing shield attached to the welding torch to provide inert-gas shielding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract During an acceptance test of the Apollo spacecraft 101 service module prior to delivery, an SPS fuel pressure vessel (SN054) (titanium Ti-6Al-4V, approximately 1.2 m (4 ft) in diam and 3 m (10 ft) long) containing methanol developed cracks adjacent to the welds. The test was stopped...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0090276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Abstract Cracking was found in the heads on large Yankee dryers, large, cylindrical, rotating, pressurized, high-temperature, cast iron pressure vessels (ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels), used to remove moisture from sheets of tissue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Abstract Three examples of corrosion-fatigue cracking from the toes of substantial fillet welds applied to seal-leaking riveted seams in steam accumulators are described. In the first case, this practice resulted in a disastrous explosion; in the second, which involved two identical vessels at...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... during examination of a naphtha desulfurizer by ultrasonic shear wave techniques. Defect indications were found in longitudinal and circumferential seam welds of the ASTM A204, grade A, steel sheet. The vessel was found to have a type 405 stainless steel liner for corrosion protection that was spot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... evaluations of the blender to determine if material or mechanical failures were the cause of the accident. The results indicate that the mixing vessel was metallurgically sound and did not contribute to the initiation of the failure. However, the vessel was not designed for mixing chemicals that must be...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract On 13 Dec 1994, two massive detonations leveled portions of an ammonium nitrate plant near Sioux City, IA. The primary explosion allegedly occurred in defectively-designed titanium sparger piping inside the neutralizer vessel. Investigation however, revealed the explosion occurred...