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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A root cause failure analysis was performed on a vaporizer coil removed from a horizontal forced circulation vaporizer. The carbon steel coil was wound in a right-hand helix with a coil centerline diameter of about 2 m. The vaporizer was gas fired and used Dowtherm A as the heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... microscopy and X-ray imaging of fracture surfaces revealed pockets of inclusions at the crack origins. In addition, tests were conducted to evaluate the detrimental effects of internal hydrogen on ductility and crack initiation in this alloy. Coils (windings) Electric power generation Vaporizers U...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A gas-fired, ASTM A-106 Grade B carbon steel vaporizer failed on three different occasions during attempts to bring the vaporizer on line. Dye penetrant examination indicated the presence of multiple packets of ductile cracks on the inside of the coil radius at the bottom of the...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract A major cause of failure in components subjected to rolling or rolling/sliding contacts is contact fatigue. This article focuses on the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) performance and failure modes of overlay coatings such as those deposited by physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A nozzle in a wastewater vaporizer began leaking after approximately three years of service with acetic and formic acid wastewaters at 105 deg C (225 deg F) and 414 kPa (60 psig). The shell of the vessel was weld fabricated from 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) E-Brite stainless steel plate and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0092103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... started mainly at the mechanically stressed tooth flanks. In addition, oil vapors, humidity, and other degradative agents could also have contributed to the observed failure. No recommendations were made. Boilers Gear teeth Microporisty Polyoxymethylene (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... vapor environment. However, failure analysis showed that cavitation erosion was the responsible failure mechanism, not corrosion as might be expected. Cavitation erosion Hardness Microstructure SO2 316 UNS S31600 1006 UNS G10060 Erosive wear Erosion - corrosion Cavitation wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... shutdown periods at ambient temperatures. The corrosive environment contained trace hydrogen chloride and acetic acid vapors as well as calcium chloride if leaks occurred. The exact service life was unknown. The bolt surfaces showed extensive corrosion deposits. Cracks had initiated at both the thread...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Tubes in heat exchangers, made of copper alloy C44300 and used for cooling air failed after 5 to six years of service. Air passed over the shell-side surface of the tubes and was cooled by water flowing through the tubes. Water vapor in the air was condensed (pH 4.5) on the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... expanding corrosion product had cracked and, in some places, had flaked away the anodized coating. The corrodent had penetrated the base aluminum in the form of subsurface intergranular attack to a depth of 0.035 mm (0.0014 in.). It was recommended that a vapor degreaser be used during cleaning prior to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... premature failure by stress-corrosion cracking under sustained loading if the atmosphere was saturated with water vapor. Dissimilar metals, bonding Pressure welding Stainless steels, bonding Welded joints, corrosion Silver Stress-corrosion cracking Silver solid-state bonded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... length of the tank and around both end caps, following the girth welds that connect them to the center portion of the tank. The remaining contents of the tank were suddenly released, aerosolized, and combusted, creating a powerful boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Based on the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... purge ventilation system designed to continuously remove hydrogen gas and vapors without letting radionuclides escape. Several intergranular cracks were discovered in the vent pipe of one such system. The pipe, made of galvanized steel sheet, connects to an exhaust fan downstream of high-efficiency...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the inner wall showed obvious vapor oxidation corrosion characteristics. Corrosion originated in the grain boundary, and selective oxidation occurred due to ion diffusion in the substrate. The layered oxide scale on the inner wall is related to the different diffusion rates for different cations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the raceways enough to cause fluctuations in machine output. Solvent-vapor cleaning was employed as a corrective technique for removing bearing lubricant. Lubricants Solvents Vapor degreasing Bearing steel Fretting wear Surface treatment related failures During the early stages of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... washing operation. Fig. 3 Schematic showing the silver-refractory metal contacts The formation of films can occur during assembly and testing if atmospheric ammonia vapors condense on surfaces when the temperature of the circuit breaker components are below the dew point. Films can also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... tubes of a type 316 stainless steel shell-and-tube condenser leaked unexpectedly in an organic chemical plant. A shell-and-tube condenser is fixed vertically on top of a jacketed reactor that produces vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). The VAM vapor enters the tube side at the bottom of the condenser at...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Distillation towers are used in the chemical industry to separate mixtures of chemicals. The chemicals inside the distillation towers are heated, causing lower boiling point chemicals to vaporize and rise to the top of the tower. Hot vapors leaving the top of the distillation towers are cooled and condensed to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-like blows created by the formation and rapid collapse of vapor bubbles within a liquid undergoing severe turbulent flow. Vapor bubbles form when the local pressure is reduced below the vapor pressure and implode as they pass into a region of higher pressure. Collapse pressures are extremely high and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0091598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... nitrate dust in atmospheric water vapor that had condensed when moist air had entered the hoppers during unloading and during standby periods when the manhole covers were left open. Failure of the hoppers was the result of intergranular SCC of the sheet-steel walls because of contact with a highly...