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Upset forging

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0059932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract Field failures, traced to internal cracks that were initiated from gross nonmetallics, were encountered in the upset portion of forged 4118 steel shafts. Ultrasonic inspection was thought to be the best method for detection from the location of these cracks, their orientation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... reduced by burning. Evidence that burning was confined to the hinge end of the clamp indicated that the metal was overheated before or during the upset forging operation. Recommendations included notifying the supplier of the burned condition on the end of the clamp. The clamps should be macroetched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in the intermediate stage of the forging preform, which subsequently increased in the final stage. A high upset strain during forging, especially in the final stage, accentuated the center burst by high lateral flow of the metal. It was concluded that the center burst of the axle forging resulted from a high...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molds or by continuous casting techniques. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, tube piercing, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure. Many large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots, while most closed-die and upset forgings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Pertinent Specifications The forging stock was in Indian alloy that is similar to British BSL L77 alloy. Specimen Selection Three sections across the cracked regions of the parts (one each from the upsetting, preforging, and final forging stages) were selected for low-power optical and high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... in the original (fireside) heads should have been largely eliminated by the upsetting operation, on the same lines as was done by the hot-forging operation in the laboratory. Bearing in mind how easily tough-pitch copper can be gassed, it is a testimony to the makers of copper fireboxes and the like that cases...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... crankshafts like that shown in Fig. 1 were usually forged from 1035 steel, but because of service conditions, the material was changed to 4140 steel. The forgings were made from 5.5-cm (2.15625-in.) diam bar stock by cutting to length, hot bending, upsetting, hot-trimming flash, hot pressing, and visually...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... This leaves a nonfused portion, thereby reducing the effective wall thickness. These welding processes locally heat the edges of the plate to a suitable forging temperature; the edges are then pushed together, upsetting the wall thickness and forming a bond. In an electric-resistance welded seam, the weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... A photomicrograph of the flow forming machine is shown in Fig. 2 . The preform—a thick walled starting material for flow forming—was fabricated by forging (both upsetting and drawing), piercing with tapered punches, and mandrel forging, followed by hardening and tempering. Fig. 2 Four-axis CNC flow forming...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... welding processes. The article also describes failure origins in other welding processes, such as electroslag welds, electrogas welds, flash welds, upset butt welds, flash welds, electron and laser beam weld, and high-frequency induction welds. arc welding brittle fracture electrogas welds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of seven steps: The ingot is cogged into a billet in a number of reheats, forging being carried out between 2000 and 1650° F. The billet is cut into blocks under the press. The blocks are flattened (upset) and the central hole punched and drifted under the press. The shape is trued...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by mechanically upsetting one end. Blind Fasteners Blind fasteners are usually multiple-piece devices that can be installed in a joint that is accessible from only one side. When a blind fastener is being installed, a self-contained mechanism, an explosive, or other device forms an upset...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the inclusions and fractures. Etching revealed a uniform fine-grain microstructure of tempered martensite. Textural directionality in and around the cap region indicated that the cap had been formed by hot upsetting or some similar forging operation during manufacture. There was no evidence of case hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... grinding damage, machining marks or nicks, and quench cracks resulting from heat treating operations. Frequently, stress concentrators are introduced during hot or cold forming of shafts; these include surface discontinuities, such as laps, seams, pits and forging laps, and internal imperfections...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failures generally do not immediately occur upon exposure to the environment/stress, the source of the corrosive environment may be the result of a transient condition, poor process control, or a process upset that occurred at some time previous to the discovery of the failure. Historical data regarding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in commerical materials and define acceptability standards for the producer. Many imperfections are detected before actual operation. For example, a crack indication was found in a forged nozzle by magnetic-particle inspection before welding of the nozzle into a pressure vessel. The nozzle manufacturer had...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to local changes. However, failures in piping and pressure vessels usually occur at isolated locations and are typically the result of an upset condition, material problem, installation or manufacturing problem, or degradation. Piping FEA can be used to determine loads, bending moments, and displacements...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the article “Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement” in this Volume). An upset in any stage along the heat-flow path can upset the balance and cause a sudden tube rupture. Sudden rupture of a tube in a steam generator is a serious failure, because the steam generator must be shut down immediately to minimize...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... vessels usually occur at isolated locations and are typically the result of an upset condition, material problem, installation or manufacturing problem, or degradation. Piping FEA can be used to determine loads, bending moments, and displacements at the location of the failure and to determine whether...