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Underground corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... length to provide cathodic protection. Chemical processing equipment Pipelines Underground corrosion 304L UNS S30403 Galvanic corrosion One of five underground drain lines intended to carry a highly acidic effluent from a chemical-processing plant to distant holding tanks failed in just...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... were found to be initiated by corrosion pits, but in Australia, the fractures were considered likely to be due to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). This paper reports a metallurgical study of 44 failed rockbolts from four different underground mines in Australia. The study confirmed that failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract High-level radioactive wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials are kept in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The wastes consist primarily of concentrated solutions of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. Each of the tanks is equipped...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Diagnosis of environmentally induced failures is greatly facilitated by metallographic analysis. As an example, a failure analysis of ASTM A574 material grade bolts is presented. The bolts served as bonnet screws in underground valves and failed due to stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... in Underground Brass Pipes ; Biologically Induced Corrosion , Dexter S.C. , Ed., National Association of Corrosion Engineers , 1986 , p 102 – 108 2. Yoffe P. , Microbiologically Influenced Failures of Cupronickel and Aluminum Brass Condenser Tubes: Comparison of Real Cases , Proc. 1995...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract The fatigue failure of a wire rope used on a skip hoist in an underground mine has been studied as part of the ongoing research by the Bureau of Mines into haulage and materials handling hazards in mines. Macroscopic correlation of individual wire failures with wear patterns...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 27. King R.A. , Microbiologically-Induced Corrosion in the Oil Industry and the Impact of Mitigation Programmes , J. Pipeline Eng. , Vol 7 ( No. 2 ), 2008 , p 137 – 143 28. Jack T.R. , MIC in Underground Environments: External Corrosion in the Gas Pipeline Industry...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... range of temperature, pressure, salinity, and pH ( Ref 1 ). In the 1950s, pioneering work by Zobell isolated sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that grew at 104 °C (219 °F) and pressures of 1000 bar from oil-bearing geological formations deep underground ( Ref 15 ). Microbial communities exist...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is a common and economical method of corrosion protection that is often used for the protection of underground or underwater steel structures. The use of cathodic protection for long-term corrosion prevention for structural steels, underground pipelines, oil and gasoline tanks, offshore drilling rigs, well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of cathodic protection for long-term corrosion prevention for structural steels, underground pipelines, oil and gasoline tanks, offshore drilling rigs, well-head structures, steel piling, piers, bulkheads, offshore pipelines, gathering systems, drilling barges, and other underground and underwater structures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of the electrochemical nature of corrosion and analyzes corrosion-related failures. It describes corrosion failure analysis and discusses corrective and preventive approaches to mitigate corrosion-related failures of metals. These include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in H 2 S-Containing Environments in Oil and Gas Production.” Marine structures and underground pipelines are cathodically protected either with sacrificial anodes or with impressed current. Although the cathodic protection of such structures usually does not cause hydrogen embrittlement, high...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to corrosion processes at all. However, because hydrogen damage has many similarities regardless of the source of the hydrogen, damage processes caused by corrosion and manufacturing problems are both described in this article. Many metals and alloys are susceptible to hydrogen damage; however, specific...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reaction occurs below 5 °C (40 °F). Oxygen is required and is present in the atmosphere and, to a lesser extent, underwater and underground. Types of corrosion include atmospheric corrosion, liquid-immersion corrosion, crevice corrosion, galvanic corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion is the deterioration of a material by a reaction of that material with its environment. The realization that corrosion control can be profitable has been acknowledged repeatedly by industry, typically following costly business interruptions. This article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... causes of failure of pressure vessel and bolt Table 2 Examples of root causes of failure of pressure vessel and bolt Root type Pressure vessel failure Bolt failure Physical roots Corrosion damage, wall thinning Fatigue crack; equipment vibration; lack of vibration; isolation Human...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and material, which are discussed in the following sections along with examples. The tools available for failure analysis are then covered. Further, the article describes the categories of mode of failure: distortion or undesired deformation, fracture, corrosion, and wear. It provides information...