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Unalloyed steel

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Unalloyed steels and the pure nickel steels frequently used in the past can sustain significant damage from hydrogen attack in ammoniacal environments. The attack causes decarburization that leads to a loosening of the structure due to the precipitation of methane along grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A welded vessel made of acid resistant 18-8 steel used in a derusting operation started to leak after a long period due to the formation of cracks. The vessel was heated from the outside and did not come into direct contact with the flame. It was surrounded by a casing of unalloyed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... Abstract The cause of fracture of two piston rods of hammers of a drop forge was determined. The first rod of 180 mm diam consisted of an unalloyed steel with 0.37% C and 0.67% Mn and had a strength of 56 kp/sq mm at 26% elongation. Fatigue fractures propagated from several points which could...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... affected area yielded low specific impact energy values. These are the significant characteristics of hydrogen attack. The attack penetrated to a depth of 13 to 16 mm. It was recommended that the manifolds be made of hydrogen-resistant steel instead of the unalloyed steel used. Ammonia Chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... and failure analysis. The gears showed signs of wear after only comparatively brief operation. They were made of the unalloyed steel C 45 (Material No. 1.0503) according to DIN 17 200 and were normalized. Gear 1 with 1905 hours of operation showed at one side pittings on both flanks of the teeth as...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract A welded natural gas line of 400 mm OD and 9 mm wall thickness made of unalloyed steel with 0.22C had to be removed from service after four months because of a pipe burst. Metallographic examination showed the pipe section located next to the gas entrance was permeated by cracks or...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to the unalloyed mild steel pipe of larger diam. Visual inspection showed corrosion and deep, trench-like erosion over the entire circumference of the seam on the side of the thicker mild steel pipe. Examination using the V2-A solution for picral etch showed the microstructure of the unalloyed pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... resistant to SCC. The candidate materials are commercial grade unalloyed titanium or Inconel 600, which have superior resistance to SCC compared to austenitic stainless steels. Paper machines Piping Weld defects White liquor 304 UNS S30400 Joining-related failures Stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Octagonal cast ingots weighing 6.5 tons and made of unalloyed heat treated steel CK 45 according to DIN 17200, and crankshafts forged from these ingots showed internal separations during ultrasonic testing. To determine the cause of defect, an ingot slice and a crank arm were examined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... the inlet flange during disassembly - a degree of embrittlement uncommon in the low carbon unalloyed steel of which these desuperheaters are made. Fig. 1 Failed desuperheater unit (about eight feet in length). The failure analysis is then divided into searches for (1) the cause of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Corrosion failure occurred in a titanium clad tubesheet because of a corrosive tube-side gas-liquid mixture leaking through fatigue cracks in the seal welds at tube-to-tubesheet joints. The tubesheet was a carbon steel plate clad with titanium on the tube side face. The seal weld...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... focuses on the types of hydrogen embrittlement that occur in all the major commercial metal and alloy systems, including stainless steels, nickel-base alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, copper and copper alloys, and transition and refractory metals. The specific types of...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis, metallographic analysis, and simulated-service tests. It provides case studies for the analysis of SCC service failures and their occurrence in steels, stainless steels, and commercial alloys of aluminum, copper, magnesium, and titanium. aluminum alloys austenitic stainless steel carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... elevated temperatures. To these steels belong for example the silicon spring steels and the Al alloyed nitriding steels ( Figs. 3 and 4 ). When the whole decarburisation proceeds in the γ-area, that is above 911°C in unalloyed steels (case d in Fig. 1 ), the carbon content goes over gradually — with or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... hydrogen damage in all the major commercial alloy systems. It covers the broader topic of hydrogen damage, which can be quite complex and technical in nature. The article focuses on failure analysis where hydrogen embrittlement of a steel component is suspected. It provides practical advice for the failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... crusher wear, electronic circuit board drill wear, grinding plate wear failure analysis, impact wear of disk cutters, and identification of abrasive wear modes in martensitic steels. abrasive wear failures abrasive wear mechanisms adhesive wear erosive-type wear wear failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article provides a discussion on the imperfections found in steel forgings. The problems encountered in sheet metal forming are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the causes of failure in cold formed parts. anisotropy blisters centerline shrinkage chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fixed period of time until the transformation is complete, at which point the transformation products are determined. This is done repeatedly until a TTT diagram is constructed, such as that shown for an unalloyed steel (American Iron and Steel Institute, or AISI, 1045) in Fig. 1 . Time-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... material necking in the simple cross section of a tensile testing specimen (for example, see Fig. 166 in “Medium-Carbon Steels: Atlas of Fractographs,” Fractography , Volume 12 of the ASM Handbook , 1987). The other fracture mode is plane-stress fracture (mode II fracture), which manifests itself as...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the component geometry. Mechanical conditions and metallurgical features can influence the appearance of MVC. Examples are shown for a ferritic steel ( Fig. 1a ), ductile iron ( Fig. 1b ), and cast titanium alloy ( Fig. 1c ). The dimple features are evident in equiaxed form for tensile loading ( Fig...