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Unalloyed steel

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of unalloyed steel. Where the cracks had not eroded away, it was clear they ran transcrystalline, indicative of stress-corrosion cracking. Because the cracks propagated from the outer surface of the vessel, they were not caused by the derusting agent but by the external atmosphere in conjunction with welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Unalloyed steels and the pure nickel steels frequently used in the past can sustain significant damage from hydrogen attack in ammoniacal environments. The attack causes decarburization that leads to a loosening of the structure due to the precipitation of methane along grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the affected area yielded low specific impact energy values. These are the significant characteristics of hydrogen attack. The attack penetrated to a depth of 13 to 16 mm. It was recommended that the manifolds be made of hydrogen-resistant steel instead of the unalloyed steel used. Ammonia Chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... unalloyed steel C 45 (Material No. 1.0503) according to DIN 17200 and were normalized. Gear 1 with 1905 h of operation showed at one side pittings on both flanks of the teeth as well as incipient fractures. Gear 2 with 1713 h of operation also showed at one side incipient fractures of the nitride layers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract The cause of fracture of two piston rods of hammers of a drop forge was determined. The first rod of 180 mm diam consisted of an unalloyed steel with 0.37% C and 0.67% Mn and had a strength of 56 kp/sq mm at 26% elongation. Fatigue fractures propagated from several points...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract A welded natural gas line of 400 mm OD and 9 mm wall thickness made of unalloyed steel with 0.22C had to be removed from service after four months because of a pipe burst. Metallographic examination showed the pipe section located next to the gas entrance was permeated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... electrodes to the unalloyed mild steel pipe of larger diam. Visual inspection showed corrosion and deep, trench-like erosion over the entire circumference of the seam on the side of the thicker mild steel pipe. Examination using the V2-A solution for picral etch showed the microstructure of the unalloyed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... resistant to SCC. The candidate materials are commercial grade unalloyed titanium or Inconel 600, which have superior resistance to SCC compared to austenitic stainless steels. Paper machines Piping Weld defects White liquor 304 UNS S30400 Joining-related failures Stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Octagonal cast ingots weighing 6.5 tons and made of unalloyed heat treated steel CK 45 according to DIN 17200, and crankshafts forged from these ingots showed internal separations during ultrasonic testing. To determine the cause of defect, an ingot slice and a crank arm were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to elevated temperatures. To these steels belong for example the silicon spring steels and the Al alloyed nitriding steels ( Figs. 3 and 4 ). When the whole decarburisation proceeds in the γ-area, that is above 911°C in unalloyed steels (case d in Fig. 1 ), the carbon content goes over gradually...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
..., namely extensive corrosion in a few hundred steaming hours, and embrittlement to a degree which led to breaking off the inlet flange during disassembly - a degree of embrittlement uncommon in the low carbon unalloyed steel of which these desuperheaters are made. Fig. 1 Failed desuperheater unit...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for an unalloyed steel (American Iron and Steel Institute, or AISI, 1045) in Fig. 1 . Time-temperature-transformation diagrams can only be read along the isotherms. The temperature A 1 is where transformation to austenite begins, and temperature A 3 is where the transformation to austenite is complete. Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A stainless steel screw securing an orthopedic implant fractured and was analyzed to determine the cause. Investigators used optical and scanning electron microscopy to examine the fracture surfaces and the microstructure of the austenitic stainless steel from which the screw...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion failure occurred in a titanium clad tubesheet because of a corrosive tube-side gas-liquid mixture leaking through fatigue cracks in the seal welds at tube-to-tubesheet joints. The tubesheet was a carbon steel plate clad with titanium on the tube side face. The seal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... The melter temperature was controlled by power input, and melt pool temperatures were periodically measured using a Type B, 304L stainless steel sheathed dip thermocouple. A melt pool temperature in excess of 1500 °C was measured prior to the thermocouple failure. Upon disassembly of the melter, severe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the tensile load. The fracture appearance typically has a dull and fibrous appearance, as in the classic cup-and-cone feature of ductile fracture, along with material necking in the simple cross section of a tensile testing specimen (for example, see Fig. 166 in “Medium-Carbon Steels: Atlas of Fractographs...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The microscale fractographic features consist of ruptured dimples, and both diffuse and local necking may be macroscopically visible depending on the component geometry. Mechanical conditions and metallurgical features can influence the appearance of MVC. Examples are shown for a ferritic steel ( Fig. 1a...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Hydrogen gas charged at 723 K, tested at room temperature K500 Cathodic charge, seawater Fig. 10 Severely hydrided unalloyed titanium Fig. 1 Cadmium-plated AISI 8740 steel nut that failed by hydrogen embrittlement. Failure occurred seven days after installation on an aircraft wing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in a refinery vessel. Original magnification: 1.5× Fig. 8 Stepwise cracking of a low-strength pipeline steel exposed to hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). Original magnification: 6× Fig. 10 Severely hydrided unalloyed titanium Fig. 9 Section of ASTM A106 carbon steel pipe with wall severely...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... implant materials: Stainless steel: ASTM F 55-82, ASTM F 56-82, ASTM F 138-82, ASTM F 139-82 (contains remelted Special Quality), ISO/DIS 5832/1 (1986) Unalloyed titanium: ASTM F 67-83, ISO 5832/II (1984) Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V ELI: ASTM F 136-79, ISO 5832/III (1978) Cast cobalt...