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Turbulent flow

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... through the piping, extremely turbulent flow, and/or intrusions (weld backing rings or weld bead protrusions) on the internal surface of the pipes. Increasing the pipe diameter and decreasing the intrusions on the internal surface would help to eliminate the problem. Diameters Leakage Mechanical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... pores, which indicated turbulent filling of the mold. Spherical pores would have indicated the melt had been improperly degassed. Based on these findings, it was recommended that the manufacturer analyze and redesign the gating system to eliminate the turbulent flow problem during the permanent mold...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... heating Pipe Soldered joints Turbulent flow Copper pipe Joining-related failures Erosion - corrosion A general view of the specimen under examination from a copper hot water system is shown in Fig. 1 in the as supplied condition. As can be seen from the photograph, a bent pipe has been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Examination Metallography Chemical Analysis/Identification Erosion is the consequence of turbulent flow eroding the protective oxide scale and base metal during operation. In boiler systems, an oxide scale is established to protect the components from further metal loss due to oxidation. This scale...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Chemistry Micro-Hardness The impeller damage mechanism is cavitation erosion. Possible causes are a turbulent flow pattern caused by the impeller motion, excessive air (e.g., low liquid level in supply tank or introduction of air through a pump seal), or inadequate head. Pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... that failed by impingement corrosion from turbulent flow of air and condensate along the shell-side surface. (a) Shell-side surface of tube showing damaged area. (b) Damaged surface showing ridges in affected area. 4×. (c) Unetched section through damaged area showing undercut pitting typical of impingement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... In this instance, cavitation damage could have been the result either of a turbulent flow pattern caused by the movement of the impellers in the liquid or of excessive air in the system because the water in the supply tank was low or because air had been drawn through a pump seal. Further investigation revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... found near the welding area of J-2 joints. In other sample, undercut defect was found and at this location, carburization as an initiation condition for metal dusting was found. The welding protrusion will change laminar flow of the gas, to turbulent flow. The solid particles in the turbulent gas...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Slurries in Turbulent Flow , J. Pipelines , Vol 4 , 1984 , p 213 – 221 41. Ahmad K. , Baker R.C. , and Goulas A. , Computation and Experimental Results of Wear in a Slurry Pump Impeller , Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers , Vol 200 ( No. C6 ), 1986 42...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion of the exposed areas in the form of smooth-bottomed shallow recesses. Nearly all flowing or turbulent corrosive media can cause erosion-corrosion. The attack may exhibit a directional pattern related to the path taken by the corrodent as it moves over the surface of the metal. Figure 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for a Single Tube in Cross Flow , Wear , Vol 240 , 2000 , p 95 – 99 10.1016/S0043-1648(00)00342-2 4. Lee B.-E. , Fletcher C.A.J. , and Behnia M. , Computational Prediction of Tube Erosion in Coal Fired Power Utility Boilers , J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power (Trans. ASME) , Vol 121...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion from turbulent flow of air and condensate along the shell-side surface. (a) Shell-side surface of tube showing damaged area. (b) Damaged surface showing ridges in affected area. 4×. (c) Unetched section through damaged area showing undercut pitting typical of impingement attack. 100× Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...× Fig. 8 Copper alloy C44300 heat-exchanger tube that failed by impingement corrosion from turbulent flow of air and condensate along the shell-side surface. (a) Shell-side surface of tube showing damaged area. (b) Damaged surface showing ridges in affected area. Original magnification: 4×. (c...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... material is also recommended. In an aggressive environment, the failure mode was localized corrosive attack caused by turbulence and erosion corrosion. The corrosion failure process was enhanced by the high velocity and/or acidity of the fluid. Another contributing factor was the microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... markings showing direction of liquid metal flow (light alloys) Flow marks D 120: Surface roughness D 121 Depth of surface roughness is approximately that of the dimensions of the sand grains Rough casting surface D 122 Depth of surface roughness is greater than that of the sand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... thinning rate ( Ref 48 ). In the flow-evaluation step, the flow field through the pipeline must be evaluated by numerical simulation, in which the three-dimensional flow field in a pipeline is solved using the Navier-Stokes equation together with a turbulence model. In this computation, the two-phase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... system. Figure 1 shows the microbes that were cultured from the corrosion product. They were found to be sulfur-reducing bacteria. Uniform thinning occurred when the resultant oxide on the copper pipe surface eroded in low flow rates. The threshold for erosion by turbulent waters is much lower...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... subjected to 14 heating and cooling cycles per hour for at least 16 h/day, or a minimum of 224 cycles/day. Steam and water pressure were 1035 kPa (150 psi) and 895 kPa (130 psi) respectively, and water-flow rate was estimated to be 1325 L/min (350 gal/min) based on pump capacity. Water-inlet temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... This is because more frequent changes in the flow direction cause the liquid metal stream to become more turbulent and to include more air bubbles and oxides. For this reason usually only components which are not subjected to very great demands with regard to soundness under pressure are die cast 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...) of argon for a 19 mm (0.75 in.) gas lens nozzle. The gas lens collect body is an important and necessary part of the torch used to weld these alloys. Failure to use a gas lens will result in a flow condition that is turbulent enough to aspirate air into the gas stream, thus contaminating the weld...