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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., which indicated turbulent filling of the mold. Spherical pores would have indicated the melt had been improperly degassed. Based on these findings, it was recommended that the manufacturer analyze and redesign the gating system to eliminate the turbulent flow problem during the permanent mold casting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the piping, extremely turbulent flow, and/or intrusions (weld backing rings or weld bead protrusions) on the internal surface of the pipes. Increasing the pipe diameter and decreasing the intrusions on the internal surface would help to eliminate the problem. Diameters Leakage Mechanical properties...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 69 (a) Schematic representation of the production system. (b) Location of the pit plug and metal loss and transition of laminar fluid flow to turbulent flow More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Elongated surface cavities on the inside surface of a 70-30 cupronickel tube produced by erosion-corrosion. The tube surface is clean, the attack having occurred due to brine flowing through it at 70 °C (158 °F) with turbulent flow and an excessive level of dissolved oxygen. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Copper alloy C44300 heat-exchanger tube that failed by impingement corrosion from turbulent flow of air and condensate along the shell-side surface. (a) Shell-side surface of tube showing damaged area. (b) Damaged surface showing ridges in affected area. 4×. (c) Unetched section through More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 8 Copper alloy C44300 heat-exchanger tube that failed by impingement corrosion from turbulent flow of air and condensate along the shell-side surface. (a) Shell-side surface of tube showing damaged area. (b) Damaged surface showing ridges in affected area. Original magnification: 4×. (c More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... is the consequence of turbulent flow eroding the protective oxide scale and base metal during operation. In boiler systems, an oxide scale is established to protect the components from further metal loss due to oxidation. This scale was visible on the outside surfaces of separators 2 and 3. The scale was not present...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... joints Turbulent flow Copper pipe Joining-related failures Erosion - corrosion A general view of the specimen under examination from a copper hot water system is shown in Fig. 1 in the as supplied condition. As can be seen from the photograph, a bent pipe has been soldered into a straight pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... analysis of the tube confirmed that the material was copper alloy C44300 (arsenical admiralty metal). Fig. 1 Copper alloy C44300 heat-exchanger tube that failed by impingement corrosion from turbulent flow of air and condensate along the shell-side surface. (a) Shell-side surface of tube showing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., severely eroded surfaces of the impellers are characteristic of cavitation damage. In this instance, cavitation damage could have been the result either of a turbulent flow pattern caused by the movement of the impellers in the liquid or of excessive air in the system because the water in the supply tank...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... This appearance is consistent with cavitation damage, the degradation of a metal surface due to the hammer-like blows created by the formation and rapid collapse of vapor bubbles within a liquid undergoing severe turbulent flow. Vapor bubbles form when the local pressure is reduced below the vapor pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to localized wear, but careful monitoring is necessary to prevent failure of the worn parts because of corrosion ( Ref 2 ). Turbulence and eddies are promoted either where fittings or valves project into the mainstream flow or where the diameter of a pipe changes. The momentum of the particles is sufficient...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., carburization as an initiation condition for metal dusting was found. The welding protrusion will change laminar flow of the gas, to turbulent flow. The solid particles in the turbulent gas, will remove the chromia layer behind the welding protrusion and weaken the resistance of the pipe surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and exposing new reactive surfaces that are anodic to uneroded neighboring areas on the surface. This results in rapid localized corrosion of the exposed areas in the form of smooth-bottomed shallow recesses. Nearly all flowing or turbulent corrosive media can cause erosion-corrosion. The attack may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Figure 1 shows the microbes that were cultured from the corrosion product. They were found to be sulfur-reducing bacteria. Uniform thinning occurred when the resultant oxide on the copper pipe surface eroded in low flow rates. The threshold for erosion by turbulent waters is much lower with this type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... shallow recesses. Nearly all flowing and turbulent corrosive media can cause erosion-corrosion. The attack can exhibit a directional pattern related to the path taken by the corrodent as it moves over the surface of the metal. Figure 10 shows the interior of a 50 mm (2 in.) copper river waterline...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... containing H 2 S and CO 2 at a down-hole temperature greater than 50 °C. In a wet environment, CO 2 becomes aggressive. CO 2 corrosion can be distinguished as one of three types, depending on the flow: Pitting in moderate flow, mesa-type attack in medium flow, or flow induced localized corrosion (FILC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... This is because more frequent changes in the flow direction cause the liquid metal stream to become more turbulent and to include more air bubbles and oxides. For this reason usually only components which are not subjected to very great demands with regard to soundness under pressure are die cast 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... will result in a flow condition that is turbulent enough to aspirate air into the gas stream, thus contaminating the weld and destroying its mechanical and corrosion properties. The manifold gas system also contributed to this failure. When this system is first used, it is necessary to purge the contents...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... heating and cooling cycles per hour for at least 16 h/day, or a minimum of 224 cycles/day. Steam and water pressure were 1035 kPa (150 psi) and 895 kPa (130 psi) respectively, and water-flow rate was estimated to be 1325 L/min (350 gal/min) based on pump capacity. Water-inlet temperature was 10 to 15 deg...