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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract In an electric power station, seven turbine blades out of 112 broke or cracked within 8 to 14 months after commencement of operation. The blades in question were all located on the last running wheel in the low pressure section of a 35,000 kW high pressure condensing turbine. They were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046963
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A turbine spacer made of AMS 5661 alloy (Incoloy 901; composition: Fe-43Ni-13Cr-6Mo-2.5Ti) was removed from service because of a crack in the forward side of the radial rim. The crack extended axially for a distance of 16 mm across the spacer rim; radially, it extended to a depth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Two blade-detachment failures in large (600 kW) wind turbine generators were investigated. In the first case, bolt failures were established as the initial failure event. A fatigue crack reached a critical length, fast fracture developed and was then arrested as the bolt unloaded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A turbine vane made of cast cobalt-base alloy AMS 5382 (Stellite 31; composition: Co-25.5Cr-10.5Ni-7.5W) was returned from service after an undetermined number of service hours because of crack indications on the airfoil sections. This alloy is cast by the precision investment method...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Three blades from 45,000 kW, 3,000 rpm turbine were received for examination, comprising the root of blade 28, blade 89 showing a crack in one of the root teeth, and blade 106 which was free from defects. Microscopic examination of the blade material showed it to be a ferritic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article focuses on common failures of the components associated with the flow path of industrial gas turbines. Examples of steam turbine blade failures are also discussed, because these components share some similarities with gas turbine blading. Some of the analytical methods...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Cracking in gas turbine blades was found to initiate from a mechanism of low-cycle fatigue (LCF). LCF is induced during thermal loading cycles in gas turbines. However, metallography of two cracked blades revealed a change in microstructure at as-cast surfaces for depths up to 0.41 mm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract When a steam turbine was put out of service, cracks were noticed on many of the blades in the low pressure section round the stabilization bolts and perpendicular to the blade axis. The blades were made from chrome alloy steel X20-Cr13 (Material No. 1.402). When the bolts were brazed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Fusing of the switch contacts of a boiler feed pump drive motor led to the failure of a turbine. After rubbing of most of the Ni-Cr steel LP wheels had occurred, due to the admission of water carried over with the steam, a copper-rich alloy from the interstage gland rings melted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract An ASTM A193-83a grade B7 (AISI 4140) steel turbine impeller shaft fractured after 2 months of service. Failure had initiated at three separate points around the periphery of the shaft, each associated with one of three keyways. SEM fractography, metallography, and chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Two 20 MW turbines suffered damage to second-stage blades prematurely. The alloy was determined to be a precipitation-hardening nickel-base superalloy comparable to Udimet 500, Udimet 710, or Rene 77. Typical protective coatings were not found. Test results further showed that the fuel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The assignment of financial liability for turbine blade failures in steam turbines rests on the ability to determine the damage mechanism or mechanisms responsible for the failure. A discussion is presented outlining various items to look for in a post-turbine blade failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Abstract Aluminide-coated and uncoated IN-713 turbine blades were returned for evaluation after service in a marine environment because of severe corrosion. Based on service time, failure of these blades by corrosive deterioration was considered to be premature. Analysis (visual inspection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract An AMS 4126 (7075-T6) aluminum alloy impeller from a radial inflow turbine fractured during commissioning. Initial examination showed that two adjacent vanes had fractured through airfoils in the vicinity of the vane leading edges, and one vane fractured through an airfoil near the hub...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract An A-470 steel rotor disk was removed from the high-pressure portion of a steam turbine-powered compressor after nondestructive testing revealed cracks in the shoulder of the disk during a scheduled outage. Samples containing cracks were examined using various methods. Multiple cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Several compressor diaphragms from five gas turbines cracked after a short time in service. The vanes were constructed of type 403 stainless steel, and welding was performed using type 309L austenitic stainless steel filler metal. The fractures originated in the weld heat-affected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Turbine buckets in a 37.5-MW gas turbine made of Udimet 500 superalloy failed in service. The power plant was located 1 km (0.6 miles) from the Pacific Ocean and operated on No. 2 diesel fuel, which was supplied by tanker ship. Turbine bucket failures occurred on three units after 2500...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The intermediate pressure (IP) turbine of a thermal generating station is driven by steam from the boiler's reheater. On one particular IP turbine, a thick deposit was found on the insides of the rotor blade shrouds in two instances two years apart. The source of the deposits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... velocities. In the present study, steam turbine condenser tubes had to be renewed after 25 years of service. The tubes were nominally of 70:30 brass. The appearance of a typically corroded one showed uniform dezincification attack on the bore, extending from one-half to two-thirds through the tube wall...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking of low-alloy steel turbine discs has emerged as a generic concern in nuclear generating stations. An investigation that made extensive use of field metallographic techniques to examine suspected cracking in such a component is described. The crack position...