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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 8 Components of the water seal on the vacuum tube assembly. The graphite seals are indicated by arrows. The spring collar holds the seals against the two metal rings. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A detailed failure analysis was conducted on an ammonia refrigerant condenser tube component that failed catastrophically during its initial hours of operation. Evidence collected clearly demonstrated that the weld between a pipe and a dished end contained a sharp unfused region at its...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the life assessment methods for elevated-temperature failure mechanisms and metallurgical instabilities that reduce life or cause loss of function or operating time of high-temperature components, namely, gas turbine blade, and power plant piping and tubing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Hydrostatic testing at a pressure times greater than the maximum operating pressure prior to placing the component in service was also suggested. Condenser tubes Condensers (liquefiers) Refrigerating machinery Cu-0.04Sn-0.02Al Ductile fracture Background A copper condenser dashpot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001688
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... case. Decarburization Superheaters Tube components ASTM A209 Creep fracture/stress rupture Intergranular corrosion High-temperature corrosion and oxidation The authors have been involved in the examination of many failed superheater components and the two examples given here...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Residual stresses Steam generators Tube components Tubes Inconel 600 UNS N06600 Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A steam generator is a key component used in the generation of steam in a closed-cycle pressurized-water nuclear power plant. It is essentially a large heat exchanger...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... found its way past the tube expansions. This indicated that this operation had not resulted in a satisfactorily tight joint. Boiler tubes Caustic cracking Leakage Sodium hydroxide Tube components Fe-0.11C-0.46Mn Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking Caustic cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... It was recommended that material that is intended for critical applications where failure cannot be tolerated should be non-destructively examined. Inclusions Pressure vessels Trialefin Tube components ASTM A213 grade T11 UNS K11597 Stress-corrosion cracking After 2 years of service, a return bend...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... from superficial to severe, with some pits extending through 75% of the tube's wall thickness. The SCC emanated from the pits and further reduced the service strength of the component until it could no longer sustain the operating pressure and final catastrophic fracture occurred. Corrosion-resistant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and discusses the Monkman-Grant relationship and multiaxiality. The article further provides information on high-temperature metallurgical changes and high-temperature hydrogen attack and the steps involved in the remaining-life prediction of high-temperature components. It presents case studies on heater tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... chemical substances, and the large variation in processes accomplished. The present work deals with failure analysis and determination of the cause of damage of a component used in this highly demanding industry. The component under examination, shown in Fig. 1 , is a bent tube (elbow) that is used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0089722
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A welded elbow assembly (AISI type 321 stainless steel, with components joined with ER347 stainless steel filler metal by gas tungsten arc welding) was part of a hydraulic-pump pressure line for a jet aircraft. The other end of the tube was attached to a flexible metal hose, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract Hydraulic cylinder housings were being fabricated from 4140 grade seamless steel tubing. During production, magnetic-particle inspection indicated the presence of circumferential and longitudinal cracks in a large number of cylinders. Analysis (visual inspection, dye penetrant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in service. The failures discussed are (1) intergranular stress-corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (2) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 Representative microstructures of carbon steel tubes. (a) Lamellar pearlite of a tube before service. (b) Spheroidization of iron carbide (Fe 3 C) in steel tube after exposure to long heating at 540 °C (1000 °F). (c) Graphitization that occurred in a carbon steel component More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis microelectronics piping pressure vessel FAILURE of a structural or mechanical component usually can be associated with materials-related problems and/or design-related problems (which may include, depending on the definition of design, unexpected service environment). Materials failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was not known; bulk chemical analysis had simply shown that iron was a major component. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis were used to identify the deposits. In the first instance, the deposit was found to be debris that was left in the reheater tubes during boiler modification and swept...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... in an oxidizing or corrosive environment. The cracking in this particular case was due principally to the inordinately large gap between the components. Additionally, several of the sealing welds of the tubes to the back tube plate were cracked in a radial manner, and it would appear that in addition, abnormal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... Failure was actually caused by overload. Had the original conclusion been accepted, a relatively exotic alloy would have been specified. In another case, brass heat exchanger tube failure was automatically attributed to attack by an acidic cleaner, and a decision was made to stop using the solution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... is a strongly endothermic process. Heat is therefore required for the reaction, as well as for elevation of the reaction temperature. Steam reforming can take place in a tubular reformer. A mixture of methane and steam at 500 °C (930 °F) and 30 bar (435 psi) flows through a number of catalyst-filled tubes...