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Thermodynamics

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... material samples from the near-failure region and by thermodynamic analysis. A scanning Auger microprobe, SEM, and commercial thermodynamic software codes were used in the investigation. Results indicated that the boiler failure was caused by grain-boundary segregation of phosphorous, tin, and nitrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... flux. The embrittlement was shown to be caused by the flow of corrosion generated hydrogen which converted the cementite to methane which nucleated voids in the steel. A thermodynamic estimate indicated that a small amount of chromium would stabilize the carbides against decomposition by hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and x-ray microanalysis in conjunction with dimensional analysis, phase diagrams and thermodynamics considerations were employed to evaluate the various hypotheses. All evidence pointed to an oxide mass in the area where the hole developed, likely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... spectroscopy Oxide scales Thermodynamics Incoloy 800H UNS N08800 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Introduction After 9 years in service the transfer line of an ethane-cracking furnace developed a leak during decoking of the furnace tubes. The purpose of the furnace is to heat saturate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reaction to occur, using the appropriate thermodynamic calculations. This should be done in two steps: Verify the available thermodynamic data for the thermal stability of each constituent. Make the appropriate thermodynamic calculations to estimate the free enthalpy variations (Δ G ) r , for all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0090908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... A similar transition has been noted to occur when the sufficient thermodynamic condition for crack instability is fulfilled. The major axis of the ellipse increases faster than the minor axis until no more striations are observed and ultimate failure results in large-scale yielding (about 50%) of the pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... value dictated by thermodynamics. This value can be achieved in a recirculating system easier than in a nonrecirculating one, as in this study. In this system, the condition could occur only when the system was not in operation and stagnant condition was present or during operation but stagnant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... . In: Rapp R.A. (ed.) High Temperature Corrosion , San Diego , p. 389 ( 1981 ) 7. DeCrescente M.A. , Bornstein N.S. : Formation and reactivity thermodynamics of sodium sulfate with gas turbine alloys . Corrosion 24 , 127 ( 1968 ) 10.5006/0010-9312-24.5.127 8. Conde...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of 379 to 282 °C (714 to 540 °F), the thermodynamically stable phase is different and has a volume about 3 to 4% higher than the high-temperature phase. The transformation kinetics are slow, so that after quenching during the glass tempering process, any nickel sulfide inclusion is still in the high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... locations are consistent. The steam path through the turbine is the thread that ties the pieces together. The thermodynamics and gas dynamics describing the flow of the steam should agree with the evidence found on the blades. An important part of an internal examination is a metallurgical examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to temperatures of around 430 °C or above. Despite the favorable thermodynamic driving force, the reaction is rarely observed in modern steels as the kinetics of the transformation are slow, and steels containing over 0.7% Cr by weight are considered immune to this reaction. The spheroidization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and treated compatible coatings to avoid corrosion and hydrogen evolution at the dissimilar metal junctions. Applications Commercial refrigeration equipment cools a system below the temperature of its surroundings using a closed-circuit vapor-compression thermodynamic cycle, wherein the cooling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the burner, i.e., open end of the sleeve is exposed to the flame, so these variations in exposure to different temperatures may lead to thermal fatigue [ 5 ]. Once a thermodynamically stable oxide layer is formed on the surface, a principal means of damage occurs through thermally induced stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... under operating conditions, since the high operating temperatures provide the activation energy required for more thermodynamically favorable microstructures. Exposure to elevated temperatures for extended time periods can lead to several microstructural changes in metallic materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... York , p. 197 ( 1973 ). 17. Meier G. H. , Birks N. , Pettit F. S. and Giggins C. S. , “Thermodynamics Analyses of the High Temperature Corrosion of Alloys in Gases Containing More Than One Reactant” , High Temperature Corrosion , National Association of Corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... The efficiency of a power-generation plant is governed by a modified Rankine steam cycle, where thermodynamic efficiency increases with increasing temperature and pressure of the superheated steam entering the turbine. It is possible to further increase the mean temperature of the heat addition by taking back...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and the fuel core of spent fuel are presented in the next four sections. Oxide Films on Aluminum Aluminum is one of the most thermodynamically reactive metals. Aluminum owes its excellent corrosion resistance in most environments to the protective barrier oxide film formed and strongly bonded to its...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... because cavitation erosion in this type of pump is a very complex physical process that depends on many parameters. Generation and collapse of bubbles are influenced by pump geometry, liquid characteristics, materials properties, and hydrodynamic and thermodynamic parameter variations ( Ref 24 , 25 , 26...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of these microstructural changes is generally increased near fracture sites, compared to other regions. The microstructure of a creep or stress-rupture specimen after elevated-temperature exposure rarely resembles the initial microstructure prior to exposure. Of course, most materials are not thermodynamically stable...