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Surface grinding

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 15 Effects of grinding and shot peening on surface and subsurface residual stress in low-carbon (CK 45) steel tested in seawater. (a) Residual stress versus depth profiles. (b) Bending fatigue stress-number of cycles ( S-N ) curves. Source: Ref 36 More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 Cold deformation and grinding martensite at surface of cam lobe side. Etch: Nital. 200 × More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 39 (a) Ti-6Al-4V fastener with grinding burn on the bearing surface. Material has been re-solution treated. 2% HF etch. (b) Ground surface of 5160H steel spring caused as-quenched martensite with 67 HRC Rockwell hardness, while base is 51 HRC. Nital etch More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 15 Effects of grinding and shot peening on surface and subsurface residual stress in low-carbon (CK45) steel tested in seawater. (a) Residual stress versus depth profiles. (b) Bending fatigue stress/number of cycles curves. Source: Ref 46 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... generation which induced grinding cracks and grinding burn. Tensional stresses resulting from grinding developed in a thin surface layer. On another crankshaft, chromium plating introduced undesirable residual tensile stresses. Such plating is an unsatisfactory finish for crankshafts of aircraft engines...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047964
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... of the grinding machine was reconditioned to eliminate the undulations and retained austenite was minimized by careful heat treatment. Bevel gears Cracks Gear boxes Magnetic particle testing Spalling Surface grinding 8620 UNS G86200 Rolling-contact wear The service life of a production gearbox...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of magnifications up to 120×. Replication requires a detailed surface grinding, polishing, and etching sequence before actual surface metallographic conditions can be replicated. First, the surface is ground down to bare metal with a 60-grit flap wheel; then successively smaller grits (down to 600 grit...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... was not satisfied in the crankpin of the ground crankshaft, it was concluded that improper grinding could have contributed to the failure. Hardened (Nitrided) Case Examination Nitrogen content, depth of nitrided layer, and micro-hardness of the crankshaft at the fracture surface were all examined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract Overhaul mechanics discovered a crack in an AISI 4340 Cr-Mo-Ni alloy steel pivot bolt when grinding off the chromium plating. The bolt had served for an estimated 10,000 h and was replated when last overhauled. On checking the bolt, several fine cracks were found on the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... investigation revealed that fused material from the blade had been thrown onto the cold blade surface during a grinding operation to remove the targeting bosses from the forgings, thereby causing local embrittlement. It was recommended that extreme care be taken during grinding operations to prevent the hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... a fractured latch tip that shows two of several small cracks (arrows at right) that extended through the hardened case to the core, and the burned layer on latch surface (dark band indicated by arrow at left) that resulted from grinding burns The stop arms were machined from 8620 steel. The latch tips...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 6 Surface layer microstructure generated during low-stress and abusive grinding of AISI 4340 steel. (a) Surface layers were not altered during low-stress grinding. (b) White layer formed during abusive grinding. (c) Plot of microhardness alterations. (d) Plot of residual stress. (e) Plot More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by fatigue. (Left) Section through pulverizer showing the inner main shaft that fractured, repaired itself by friction welding, and fractured a second time. (Right) Photograph of the friction welded surface The lower grinding ring of the pulverizer was attached to the outer main shaft ( Fig. 1 , left...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... response to heat treatment. On the surface near the fillet at the junction of the shank and fork, faint grinding marks and circumferential grooves could be seen. These marks and grooves would have been peened over and covered with peening dimples if peening had been done properly. Unlike the fillet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... as surfaces B (underside of surface A) and C. The fracture occurred at the outer diameter of the shroud in the vicinity of the section change at the shroud/vane interface. It is common practice to balance the impeller prior to installation by grinding selected areas. The grinding marks are visible in Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., a procedure common to the surface preparation and machining of titanium alloys, which produced a superior surface finish. All of the grinding and polishing performed on the weldment was done with the Di-Profiler using various PSA-backed grinding papers and polishing cloths. The procedures followed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0091853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... become embedded in the two grinding plates and abrade through, scratching the wear ring surfaces at the edge of the plate. Initially, the clearance between the plates is set to zero, but as the quartz particles flow into the space between the plates, they wedge them apart. The particles wedged between...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... 1 Transverse failure origin in a valve spring made from ground rod. The transverse marks (arrow) are remnants of the grinding operation. 8× Recommendations Recommendations involved altering the shot-peening procedure to create adequate surface compression at all stressed points...
Image
Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 1 As-received fractured second-stage impeller. (a) Overview of damaged impeller showing the fracture surface (FS) and groups 1 and 2 surface defects. Note the grinding marks on shroud surface A. (b) Closeup view of the fracture surface and group 1 defects. Outer shroud surface A and inner More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cracks and sharp corners which should be removed by grinding to avoid concentration of stresses. Finishing of only the working surfaces may be inadequate because failures may originate in an unground area. Failure to remove mill-decarburized surfaces (that can range from a few thousandths of an inch...