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Surface analysis (chemical)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... at the surface of the tube. The cracks were covered with scale, indicating that thermal fatigue (heat cracking) had occurred. Chemical analysis confirmed that the original material was type 304 stainless steel that had been through-carburized by the formation of an endothermic gas mixture. It was recommended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., energy-dispersive chemical analysis, physical and mechanical evaluation. Stereomicroscopic examination of the opened crack fracture surface revealed one large fan-shaped region that had propagated radially through the thickness of the material from two distinct origin areas on the internal diam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A wire hoisting rope on a drilling rig failed during a lift, after a few cycles of operation, causing extensive damage to support structures. The failure investigation that followed included mechanical property testing and chemical, metallurgical, and finite element analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... double-face sledge. Numerous fine cracks are visible on both striking surfaces. Fig. 1 Overall side view of the hammerhead. Arrow indicates the location of the chip. Nondestructive Evaluation Surface Examination Metallography Chemical Analysis/Identification Mechanical Properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... and the ductile, and chemical analysis showed a higher level of aluminum in the brittle specimens. Failure obviously occurred due to the high material aluminum content that increased hardness which then caused embrittlement at the surface which led to cracks or fracture on bending. Since no explanation of how...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... properly removed during water rinsing. Thus, recommendation was to modify that stage in the processing. Adhesion Laminates Peel tests Sodium hydroxide Surface analysis (chemical) Epoxy Nickel-phosphorus Copper foil (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure The most widely used test...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of high hardness were revealed at the edges of the weld metal. It was revealed by chemical analysis of this band that a stainless steel filler metal had been used which produced mixed composition at the weld boundaries. The plating material was revealed to be nickel by chemical analysis. It was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0090965
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...% elongation. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, unetched 30x images, and 2% nital etched 30x images) was difficult because the fracture surface of the frame section was obliterated by postfracture corrosion. Repeated attempts at cleaning using progressively stronger chemicals revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... could have caused the cracks. Fig. 1 Fracture surface. 1 2 × The results of a chemical analysis showed that the steel from which the fork was made was EN-25. This steel is suitable for this type of application and can be heat treated satisfactorily even in relatively large sizes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the hollow shaft was exposed to hydraulic oil at temperatures of 0 to 80 deg C (30 to 180 deg F). Analysis (visual inspection, 15-30x low magnification examination, 4x light fractograph, chemical analysis, hardness testing) supported the conclusions that the shaft cracked in a region subjected to severe...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information on specific ions and substances, service environments, and preservice environments responsible for SCC. It details the analysis of SCC failures, which include on-site examination, sampling, observation of fracture surface characteristics, macroscopic examination, microscopic examination, chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of external corrosion or damage were detected. Fig. 1 As-received tubing connection. The pin is to the right and the box to the left. ∼0.5×. Surface Examination Metallography Chemical Analysis/Identification The analyses indicated that the tubing failed because it was severely weakened...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... the exteriors of the parts were clean and smooth, and there was evidence of a case. Examination of the flat surfaces of the parts revealed surface cracking where actual failure had not occurred. Chemical analysis showed the material to be a low-alloy carburizing steel. The microstructure was compatible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... surface of the tube were identified as fluorides from the brazing flux by chemical analysis. The nature of the crack, potential for corrosion due to residual fluorides and residual swaging stress in the tube prior to brazing, confirmed that failure of the tube end was due to stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... was optically examined. The surface of the die was surveyed visually and macroscopically; then, the samples from the damaged areas were cut for metallographic investigation. The chemical analysis of material was performed by optical emission spectrometer. The damaged surface was observed by SEM. Optical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... found at the tips of the cracks were evaluated using electron micrograph stereo image pairs to characterize local fracture toughness. To complete the failure analysis, nondestructive evaluation, metallographic examination, and chemical investigations were carried out. No secondary cracks could be found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the component pieces did not indicate any discernible surface discontinuities on any of the pieces. OES was used to determine the composition of the component; the results of this analysis can be seen in Table 1 . The aluminum alloy that best matches the chemical composition of the bulk OES sample...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract The cause of the fatigue failure in the retaining ring of the compressor region of an aero-engine turbine was found to be the presence of a high concentration of nonmetallic inclusions. The results of chemical analysis were used to estimate the phases present. The most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of these techniques for chemical characterization of surfaces. Surface analysis technique summary chart Table 1 Surface analysis technique summary chart Surface analysis technique Parameter AES XPS TOF-SIMS Probe beam Electrons X-ray photons Ions Analyzed beam Electrons...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inspection, chemical analysis, microstructural characterization, and mechanical property testing. The pipe was made from nonresulfurized carbon steel as specified and was lined with an alumina refractory. Visual inspection revealed cracks in the refractory lining, which corresponded with the location...