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Superheaters

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001688
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Some examples of equipment failures involving high temperature operation are presented. They include some steam generator superheater components and a pump shaft that should not have been at high temperature. Metallographic analysis is used to determine the causes of failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract After some 87,000 h of operation, failure took place in the bend of a steam pipe connecting a coil of the third superheater of a steam generator to the outlet steam collector. The unit operated at 538 deg C and 135 kPa, producing 400 t/h of steam. The 2.25Cr-1Mo steel pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Examination of the header of the third superheater of a boiler producing 150 t/h of steam at 525 deg C and 118 kPa, disclosed extensive internal cracking at the connection to the tube joining this to a safety valve. Cracking was observed within the tube and in the thickness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Failure occurred in a steel superheater tube in a power plant. The tube was specified as ASTM A 213 grade T 22, and the reported operating conditions were 13 MPa (1900 psi) at 482 deg C (900 deg F). The tube carried superheated steam and was coal fired. Investigation (visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract An unusual type of defect was discovered during hydraulic testing of a water-tube boiler after repairs to the superheater tubes following erosion from soot-blowers. When the pressure reached 700 psi, slight leakage was found to be taking place from one of the superheater tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract In Nov. 1998, the west superheater outlet header at an electricity generating plant began to leak steam. Subsequent investigation revealed the presence of a crack that extended for 360 deg around the full circumference of the header and through the full cross-sectional...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Two superheater tubes from a 6.2 MPa (900 psig) boiler failed in service because of creep rupture. One tube was carbon steel and the other was carbon steel welded to ASTM A213 Grade T22 (2.25Cr-1.0Mo) tubing. The failure in the welded tube occurred in the carbon steel section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract An SB407 alloy 800H tube failed at a 100 deg bend shortly after startup of a new steam superheater. Three bends failed and one bend remote from the failure area was examined. Visual examination showed that the fracture started on the outside surface along the inside radius...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0048303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract A tube in a radiant superheater, the boiler of which is coal fired, failed by creep after 17 years of service. The failed tube was specified to be made of ASME SA-213, grade T-22. Measurable swelling of the tube diameter by about 2.4 mm and tube wastage caused by corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to be replaced during a scheduled outage. Boiler tubes Graphitization Mechanical properties ASME SA219-T1A UNS K12023 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Creep fracture/stress rupture Background Applications The superheater tubes were from a utility boiler, a base-loaded unit that had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract The top tube of a horizontal superheater bank in the reheat furnace of a steam generator ruptured after seven years in service. The rupture was found to have occurred in the ferritic steel tubing (2.25Cr-1Mo steel (ASME SA-213, grade T-22)) near the joint where it was welded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in adjacent tubes. Poor boiler circulation and high furnace temperatures were believed to have caused the prolonged overheating. Heat exchanger tubes Overheating Spheroidizing Superheaters 1.25Cr-0.5Mo ASME SA213-T11 Creep fracture/stress rupture Two instances of superheater rupture occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Several 304H stainless steel superheater tubes fractured in stressed areas within hours of a severe caustic upset in the boiler feedwater system. Tests performed on a longitudinal weld joint, which connected two adjacent tubes in the tertiary superheater bank, confirmed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A carbon-molybdenum (ASTM A209 Grade T1) steel superheater tube section in an 8.6 MPa (1250 psig) boiler cracked because of long-term overheating damage that resulted from prolonged exposure to metal temperatures between 482 deg C (900 deg F) and 551 deg C (1025 deg F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A resistance-welded carbon steel superheater tube made to ASME SA-276 specifications failed by pitting corrosion and subsequent perforation, which caused the tube to leak. The perforation was found to have occurred at a low point in a bend near the superheater outlet header...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A superheater in a generator produced 80 t/h of steam at 400 deg C and 41 kPa. Failure took place at the connection from the collector to the vent line used during start up. The material of construction was carbon steel, and the unit had 240,000 h of operation at the time...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-to-header welds in the secondary superheater outlet headers (constructed of SA335-P11 material) of a major boiler were described as an example. The OD of the header was measured to detect the amount of swelling and found to have increased 1.6% since its installation. Ligament cracks extending from tube seat...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 53 Interligament cracking in a failed secondary superheater outlet header from a boiler More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 23 Failed superheater tube. A, B, and C denote specimen areas taken for microstructural analysis. Source: Ref 6 More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 6 Photograph of a superheater tube showing the thick-lip fishmouth type of stress rupture More