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Sulfurization

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0091594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract Two leaks were discovered at a sulfur recovery unit in a refinery. The leaks were at pipe-to-elbow welds in a 152 mm (6 in.) (NPS 6) diam line, operating in lean amine service at 50 deg C (120 deg F) and 2.9 MPa (425 psig). Thickness measurements indicated negligible loss...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the buildup of sulfur compounds or bearing halves that have corrosion-resistant overlay materials were recommended as best solutions. Connecting rods Gasoline engines Lubrication oils Sulfuric acid SAE 485 Pitting corrosion A connecting-rod shell bearing from a six-cylinder gasoline engine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A gray cast iron (ASTM 247 type A) gate valve in an oleum and sulfuric acid piping loop at a chemical process plant fractured catastrophically after approximately 10 years of service. The valve was a 150 mm (6 in.) bolted flange type rated to conform to ANSI B16.1 for service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A flanged 100 mm (4 in.) diam low-carbon steel spool piece lined with Teflon was removed from a sulfuric acid denitrification system after cracks were observed in the painted coating. Visual and microstructural examination along with SEM fractography revealed scaled iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0091757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... (750 lb/h), 34 to 69 kPa (5 to 10 psi), and 125 deg C (260 deg F). The kiln developed perforations within eight months of operation. Investigation (visual inspection, metallurgical analysis, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and 44X micrographs) supported the conclusion that the sulfur and chlorine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Results of failure analyses of two aircraft crankshafts are described. These crankshafts were forged from AMS 6414 (similar composition to AISI 4340) vacuum arc remelted steels with sulfur contents of 0.003% (low sulfur) and 0.0005% (ultra-low sulfur). A grain boundary sulfide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... hydrogen sulfide attack on the carbon steel. The presence of oxygen was indicated by the carbon and sulfur found in the scale on the piping and in the sieves indicated that oxygen combined with moisture produced conditions for attack of hydrogen sulfide on carbon steel. Turbulence with some effect from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the formation of protective oxide films was recommended. Condenser tubes Salt water Sulfurization Aluminum brass Pitting corrosion A tube sample from an aluminum brass seawater surface condenser was received for analysis. This condenser had failed due to pitting after less than 1 year of service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0091756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... alloy. No recommendations were made. Grain boundary diffusion Sulfurization Inconel 690 UNS N06690 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation An alloy IN-690 (N06690) incinerator liner failed after only 250 h of service burning solid waste. The root cause of the failure was overfiring...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A cold-formed Grade TP 304 stainless steel swaged region of a reheater tube in service for about 8000 hours cracked because of sulfur-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Cracking initiated from the external surface and a high sulfur content was detected in the outer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0006899
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Lubricants Sulfurization 410 UNS S41000 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Type 410 stainless steel bolts were used to hold together galvanized gray cast iron splice case halves. Before installation, the bolts were treated with molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) antiseize compound. The torque applied...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract High-chromium steel pipes 42.25 x 3.25 mm from a blast furnace gas fired recuperator for the preheating of air were heavily oxidized and perforated in places. It was found that the blast furnace gas had a high sulfur content. Both the carburization and the formation of sulfide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... pronounced at the tie rod end of the failure. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of fracture surfaces from the bellows showed the presence of chlorine and sulfur. Failure of the bellows was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking, with chlorine and sulfur being the corroding agents. The rod damage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0006900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... behavior of type 316 stainless steel. The problem was solved by changing the clamp material from type 301 to type 316 stainless steel and by eliminating the MoS2 antiseize compound. Clamps, Materials Substitution Lubricants Sulfurization 301 UNS S30100 Brittle fracture Hydrogen damage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... typical of cast iron pipe. Chemical analyses of the porous region had a substantial increase in carbon, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur. The porous appearance and the composition of the soft porous residue confirmed graphitic corrosion. The selective leaching of iron leaves a residue rich in carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... The structure was found to be austenitic in the area where the grain-boundary precipitates appeared heaviest. The composition of the precipitates was analyzed using an electron microprobe to reveal presence of sulfur. Microstructural changes in the weld alloy at the interface were interpreted to be caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... spectroscopy revealed that the failure was due to sulfidation. The source of the sulfur in the furnace effluent was either dimethyl disulfide, injected into the furnace feed to prevent coke formation and carburization of the furnace tubes, or contamination of the feed with sulfur bearing oil. Energy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... the compositional requirements of SAE 4140, the sulfur level was 0.022% and would account for the formation of the sulfide stringers observed. Apparently, the combination of the clustered, stringer-type inclusions and the quenching conditions were too severe for this component geometry. The result was a high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of specimens etched with mixed acids, metallographic examination, and chemical analysis) supported the conclusions that the premature failure of the tube by perforation at the hearth level resulted from (1) corrosion caused by sulfur contamination from the refractory cement in contact with the tube and (2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0045903
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
..., and metallographic examination revealed a basic microstructure of pearlite and ferrite with bands of slightly finer pearlite, with a large concentration of inclusion stringers in the area of the fracture origin. Further investigation using an energy-dispersive x-ray analyzer showed high concentrations of sulfur...