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Sulfur recovery units

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0091594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract Two leaks were discovered at a sulfur recovery unit in a refinery. The leaks were at pipe-to-elbow welds in a 152 mm (6 in.) (NPS 6) diam line, operating in lean amine service at 50 deg C (120 deg F) and 2.9 MPa (425 psig). Thickness measurements indicated negligible loss of metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... concentrations of silicon, calcium, and aluminum, with lesser amounts of sulfur and sodium in addition to carbon and oxygen. The results were consistent with a mineral- and glass-filled nylon resin. Analysis of the surface material, which exhibited obvious degradation, showed a generally similar elemental...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-copper sulfate-16% boiling sulfuric acid solution can be used to confirm that mill annealing and PWHTs have been effectively performed. 8 Feedwater Economizer Design and Fabrication The natural-gas-fired combined cycle plant in this study has two separate power trains—units A and B—each having...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Chemical analysis of the stainless steel Table 1 Chemical analysis of the stainless steel Element Composition, % Tube metal ASTM A213/Grade 304H Carbon 0.06 0.04 to 0.10 Manganese 1.54 2.00 max Phosphorus 0.025 0.040 max Sulfur 0.021 0.030 max Silicon 0.58 0.75...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... varied for phosphorous (P) from a trace to 0.1%, silicon (Si) from a trace to 0.5% with most grades between 0.05 – 0.30% and sulfur (S) from a trace to 0.1% with most grades between 0.01 – 0.05%. Examination of Table 1 indicates that all of the steels contain less than 0.05% P and satisfy the maximum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., hotels, restaurants, and office buildings use boilers for generation of steam and/or hot water. Likewise, there are boilers termed as heat-recovery steam generators (HRSGs) and kraft-recovery boilers. As the HRSG name indicates, the waste heat released by the exhaust gases or hot air from combustion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Engineering Experiment Station concluded, “The results which have been obtained justify the opinion which has prevailed in the United States that mild steel is embrittled by sodium hydroxide… Stress and chemical attack now appear to be the predominating factors, neither of which can produce embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... water, boiling water, low-quality steam, high-quality steam, and superheated steam. A temperature gradient between the tube wall and the fluid within the tube provides the driving force for heat transfer at any point. The design of a steam-generating unit balances the heat input from the combustion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for SCC may involve service stresses, but often the root cause can be attributed to manufacturing. For example, Fig. 5 shows the classic pattern of stress-corrosion crack branching in a type 316L stainless steel screen that was exposed to environment containing toluene (1000 to 2000 ppm), sulfur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and ammonia can be very corrosive environments. Another cause of inadvertent general corrosion is improper chemical cleaning using uninhibited acids, excessive temperatures, or prolonged contact time. Water used to wash fire-side deposits where high-sulfur fuel oil or gas was fired will also create very...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... propagate through the weld as subsequent passes are applied. Centerline cracks are a type of hot cracking that is generally the result of a depth-to-width ratio of the weld bead greater than 2:1. Contamination by sulfur, phosphorus, degree of restraint, as well as the weld profile may also play a role...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... A typical DSC result is presented in Fig. 5 . Differential scanning calorimetry uses the temperature difference between a sample material and a reference as the raw data. In the application, the instrumentation converts the temperature difference into a measurement of the energy per unit mass associated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of hardness penetration Flow lines Weld structure Grinding scorch, bruises, and other surface damage can be brought out by macroetching the surface of the failed component. Special print techniques (such as sulfur, oxide, lead, and phosphorus prints) are useful for revealing the distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and realign itself under high tensile loading requires dynamic realignments and relative movement between individual wires and wire strands. This lubricated movement permits flexibility with resulting elastic recovery upon removal of the load. Environment is of obvious concern because wire rope may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for that reason) resulting from the competing mechanisms of strain hardening and recovery. The creep rate observed during this stage is generally the minimum creep rate observed during the entirety of the test. Tertiary Creep Tertiary creep represents the final stage of the creep curve where the creep rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the degree of embrittlement. Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Resistance The operating environment of a gas turbine blade contains significant levels of oxygen and smaller amounts of other elements, such as sulfur, that react readily with metals at operating temperatures. Hot corrosion is a severely...