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Sulfide stress cracking

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that the failure was caused by a combination of hydrogen-induced corrosion cracking and sulfide stress-corrosion cracking. Based on test data and cost, A217-WC9 cast Cr–Mo steel would be a better alloy for the application. References References 1. Carneiro R.A. , Ratnapuli R.C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0051870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... failure point. Numerous OD surface fissures were revealed by a low-power microscope. A brittle zone near the OD, identified as a sulfide stress crack with additional fatigue cracking was revealed by SEM. Sulfide stress cracking defined as brittle failure by cracking under the combined action of tensile...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-appearing microstructure. Hardness measurements confirmed these observations. The cracks followed these bands. It was concluded that the tubing failed from sulfide stress cracking, which resulted from bands of susceptible microstructure in the ERW zone. The banded microstructure in the pipe suggested...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at the tip of the pit or crack and absorbed into the metal. It has also been shown that hydrogen can be generated at the crack tip even when an anodic potential is applied to the bulk metal. In-Service Failures in Environments Containing Hydrogen Sulfide (Sulfide Stress Cracking) High-strength steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in Environments Containing Hydrogen Sulfide (Sulfide Stress Cracking) High-strength steel pipes used in drilling and completion of oil and gas wells may exhibit delayed cracking in environments containing hydrogen sulfide. This type of fracture is referred to as sulfide stress cracking. The basic cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... with the pulling operation and thus parted. It is possible that the pipe suffered from environmentally assisted cracking, such as chloride stress-corrosion cracking or sulfide stress cracking. Initiation of multiple cracks and separation along grain boundaries often point to such failure mechanisms. However...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... at 530 deg C. The connectors were made of SAE 4140 Cr-Mo steel. The material for the rod pipes was Fe-0.4C-1Mn steel. Structural stresses played a role in the cracking. Iron sulfide formed on the fracture planes and flake-like stress cracks occurred in the steel. The hydrogen sulfide content of the gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... corrosion agents, especially chlorides. If chlorides were absent, hydrogen sulfide which causes similar pitting and is capable of causing cracks could be suspected. Favorable state of stresses, which could be residual or due to heat treating, bending or straightening operations, would be recommended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047860
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... the main-bearing journal at the primary crack. Fatigue cracking with low-stress high-cycle characteristics was disclosed during macroscopic examination of the crack surface. Sulfide inclusions, which acted as stress raisers, were found to be present in the region where cracking originated. As a corrective...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0048819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... with the nozzle weld. Caustic embrittlement Potassium hydroxide Pressure vessels ASTM A516 Grade 70 UNS K02700 Stress-corrosion cracking A large pressure vessel ( Fig. 1a ) that had been in service for about 10 years as a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) absorber developed cracks and began leaking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0006899
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... they were in service for three to four months. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if the failure mode was hydrogen-stress cracking, if sulfides accelerate the failure, if heat treatment can improve the resistance against this failure mode, and if the type 305 austenitic stainless steel would...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...-cycle unidirectional-bending load. The small radius of the fillet at the change in section resulted in a stress concentration that, in conjunction with the oxide-sulfide inclusion that intersected the surface of the fillet, initiated a crack. Corrective Measures New shafts were made with a 2.4-mm...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... SIMS secondary ion mass spectroscopy SLC sustained load cracking SMAW shielded metal arc welding SMIE solid metal induced embrittlement S-N stress-number of cycles SRB sulfate-reducing bacteria SSC sulfide-stress cracking tc critical thickness T thickness T throat T temperature Tc recrystallization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... crack size for the observed residual stresses was very close to the crack size measured from markings on the fracture surface. It was concluded that the nickel sulfide inclusion expanded, creating a circular crack that grew slowly until it reached the size indicated by the markings, at which point...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... grain of the crack tip position Fig. 8 SEM micrographs and spectrum diagram of inclusions ( a , d ) oxide inclusions and sulfide inclusion; ( b , e ) oxide inclusions, carbonitride inclusion, and sulfide inclusion; ( c , f ) oxide inclusions and sulfide inclusion Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., and the absence of cracks at the sulfide-matrix boundaries after hot working which would normally initiate internal fatigue cracks [ 11 ]. The stress to fracture MnS inclusions loaded in the longitudinal direction is greater than the stress in the short transverse direction to part the interface [ 8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... describes what damage is present. Damage mechanism: The specific series of events that describe both how the damage was incurred and the resulting consequences. Examples of damage mechanisms include high-temperature creep, hydrogen embrittlement, stress-corrosion cracking, and sulfidation. Damage...