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Sulfide attack

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... hydrogen sulfide attack on the carbon steel. The presence of oxygen was indicated by the carbon and sulfur found in the scale on the piping and in the sieves indicated that oxygen combined with moisture produced conditions for attack of hydrogen sulfide on carbon steel. Turbulence with some effect from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Copper alloy (C83600) impellers from two different feed pumps that supplied water to a 2-year-old boiler failed repeatedly. Examination by various methods indicated that the failures were caused by sulfide attack that concentrated in shrinkage voids in the castings. Two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0091757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... in the charcoal attacked the Inconel 601, forming various sulfides and chlorides. Recommendations included on-site testing, and installation of test coupons of various alloys before fabricating another kiln. The suggested alloys were RA85H, 800HT, HR-120, Haynes 556, and HR-160. Sulfurization Inconel 601...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to the naked eye. Macrophotography showed that the attack was more severe at one edge of each pad, resulting in deeper grooving and a buildup of deposits, mostly silver sulfides. Microstructural analysis of a cross section indicated that the interface between the silver overlay and the substrate (beryllium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... as primarily copper sulfide, with zinc and aluminum sulfides while the green deposit was revealed to be copper chloride. The combination of sulfide and chloride attack on the tubes was concluded to have resulted in the failure. Injection of ferrous sulfate upstream of the condenser which could aid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... line UTS(MPa) 536 580 YS(MPa) 150 180 The corrosion that has occurred on this transfer line bears all the characteristics of high-temperature sulfidation. It is known that alloys can undergo rapid attack when exposed to environments containing mixtures of CO-CO 2 -H 2 -H 2 O and H 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of these precipitates occur at grain boundaries, this becomes the weakest area of the structure of the material and the most likely to initiate failure. To overcome these two problems, a material with a higher creep strength than the 3718 material and a higher resistance to sulfidation attack must be selected...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concentration decreases with depth, due to diffusion limitations. Precipitates formed along the diffusion front. Fig. 7 Sulfidation and chloridation attack on nickel alloy of charcoal-regeneration kiln. See also Fig. 8 . Region 1 is an area of chromium sulfide islands (dark phase) interspersed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of a superheater tube shows apparent thermal-fatigue cracks at sites displaying visual alligatoring. Original magnification: 500×. Source: Ref 65 . Courtesy of D.N. French Fig. 7 Sulfidation and chloridation attack on IN-601 nickel-base alloy of charcoal-regeneration kiln (see also Fig. 8 ). Region 1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as shown in Fig. 1 . 6× Fig. 4 Failed aluminum brass condenser tube from a saltwater heat exchanger. The tube failed from pitting caused by hydrogen sulfide and chlorides in the feedwater. (a) Cross section of tube showing deep pits and excessive metal wastage. 2 3 4 ×. (b) Higher...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... grain boundaries of the root-pass fusion zone. Etched with 10% oxalic acid. Original magnification: 55× Fig. 7 Copper-nickel alloy heat-exchanger tubes that failed from denickelification due to attack by water and steam. (a) Etched section through a copper alloy C71000 tube showing dealloying...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... of manganese sulfide stringer-type inclusions, which were anodic to the surrounding metal and readily attacked by the acidic soft drink. The attack extended along the inclusion lines to a maximum depth of about 0.64 mm (0.025 in.), with the depth apparently depending on the length of the exposed sulfide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with a thin film of fused salt in an oxidizing gas atmosphere at elevated temperatures. This is known as high temperature or “hot” corrosion where a porous non-protective oxide scale is formed at the surfaces with sulfides in the substrate, and the mechanism of attack does not involve aqueous electrolytes [ 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... In the attacked zone, corrosion took place along the phase boundary graphite/matrix ( fig. 4 ) in the normal structure as well as in the supercooled one. It oxidized the ferrite and pearlite of the matrix selectively while the graphite, the ternary phosphide eutectic steadide, and the sulfidic inclusions were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... The airfoils of the uncoated blades exhibited splitting along the leading edges and swelling on the surfaces, indicating severe hot corrosion ( Fig. 1a ). Metallographic examination of an uncoated blade confirmed hot-corrosion damage by revealing the characteristic sulfidation-oxidation attack of the base...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for impact-induced cracking Hydrogen-induced blistering Low-strength steels at ambient temperatures Hydrogen forms gas-filled blisters Cracking from precipitation of internal gaseous hydrogen Heavy steel sections Induced by high-temperature exposure followed by rapid cooling Hydrogen attack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... attack Steels subject to combined high-temperature and high-pressure hydrogen. Also affects copper Irreversible chemical reactions of hydrogen with matrix or alloy elements form high-pressure pockets of gases other than molecular hydrogen. Cracking from hydride formation Transition, rare earth...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surfaces by the action of anaerobic SRB. These organisms reduce sulfate to sulfide in their metabolism and are commonly found in mixed microbial communities present in soils and natural waters. In industrial systems, biodegradable materials, such as some of the hydrocarbons found in oil and gas operations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... products vary with the environmental and temperature conditions, including the chemical composition of the materials used [ 25 ]. Sulfidation attack is known to occur at S levels as low as 0.004 wt. % (0.05 wt. % S is present in the normal fuel), and Na levels of the order of 1–15 ppm can also trigger...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... dissolution and copper reprecipitation. Heat exchanger tubes Marine environments Sulfides 90Cu-10Ni Intergranular corrosion The failure of a heat exchanger tube in a marine engine resulted in flooding of the vessel and subsequently sinking it. The coolant utilized in this engine...