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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...-to-sulfur ratio and be in a normalized condition, low-hydrogen electrodes and welding practices should be used, all corners should be generously radiused, the welds should be inspected and ground or dressed to minimize stress concentrations, postweld heating is advisable, and radiographic and penetrant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... deg F) to 7 deg C (45 deg F) that night. The column was shop fabricated in 12 m (40 ft) long sections of 19 mm (3/4 in.) thick steel plate of ASTM A36 steel. Crack initiation was caused by high residual stress during girth welding, and the presence of notches formed by the termination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... on springs fabricated after field failures lasted only 50,000 cycles to failure. It was discovered that the percent coverage of shot peening prior and subsequent to the increase in failure incidence was much less than 100%, with a shot peening time of 12 min. The residual-stress state of “as fabricated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the conclusion that the failure was caused by SCC due to stress, sensitization, and environment. Recommendations included replacing all pipe sections and installing them using low-heat-input, multiple-pass welding procedures. Heat affected zone Integranular fracture Piping 304 UNS S30400 Joining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... stresses were caused by misalignment between the electric motor and compressor and were transmitted to the shaft through the geared coupling. Flexible-disk couplings capable of transmitting the required horsepower were installed on the shafts as a corrective measure. Alignment Bending Radii 4340...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Failure initiated from the spring inside coil surface. Examination of the fracture surface using scanning electron microscopy showed no evidence of fatigue. Final fracture occurred in torsion. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed high inner-diameter residual stresses, indicating inadequate stress relief...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article commences with a discussion on the characteristics of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and describes crack initiation and propagation during SCC. It reviews the various mechanisms of SCC and addresses electrochemical and stress-sorption theories. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is a form of corrosion and produces wastage in that the stress-corrosion cracks penetrate the cross-sectional thickness of a component over time and deteriorate its mechanical strength. Although there are factors common among the different forms...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... having low and high stress-rupture ductility, showing the increased safety margin provided by the alloy with high stress-rupture ductility. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 9 Power-law dependence of creep crack growth with K in less ductile materials. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 12 Logarithmic plot...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the underlying fundamentals, applications, the relevance and necessity of performing proper stress analysis in conducting a failure analysis. It presents an introduction to the stress analysis of bodies containing crack-like imperfections and the topic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract This article describes concepts and tools that can be used by the failure analyst to understand and address deformation, cracking, or fracture after a stress-related failure has occurred. Issues related to the determination and use of stress are detailed. Stress is defined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... temperatures at different stresses. Source: Ref 18 Fig. 9 Schematic creep curves for alloys having low and high stress-rupture ductility, showing the increased safety margin provided by the alloy with high stress-rupture ductility. Source: Ref 18 Fig. 14 Fracture mechanism map...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A pressure vessel failed causing an external fire on a nine-story coke gasifier in a refinery power plant. An investigation revealed that the failure began as cracking in the gasifier internals, which led to bulging and stress rupture of the vessel shell, and the escape of hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... In most cases however the cracks were detected after a certain period of operation. The intercrystalline course of the cracks indicated stress-cracking as it often appears in brass after heavier cold deformation. The splitting of the couplings could have been avoided by a tempering heat treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... (800 to 1000 deg F), but that of the bolt is lower. The T-bolt broke after three years of service. The expected service life was equal to that of the aircraft. It was found that the bolt broke as a result of SCC. Thermal stresses were induced into the bolt by intermittent operation of the jet engine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0091622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... buildup. If redesign was impossible, an alloy more resistant to Cl-SCC, such as a duplex stainless steel or a high-molybdenum (4 to 6%) austenitic stainless steel, should be used. Chlorides Digesters Paper machines CF-8M UNS J92900 Stress-corrosion cracking A CF-8M (cast type 316) neck...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0006898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... prepared. In addition, stressed fuses made of nickel silver and of cupro-nickel (80Cu-20Ni) were exposed to a drop of corrosive solution in the stressed area. All nickel silver specimens failed after two days of exposure to NH4NO3 solution. However, 17% of them failed and 67% showed crack initiation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
.../Mo austenitic stainless steels. Examination of the cracks at high magnification revealed them to be of the stress-corrosion type. The welds were of satisfactory quality. Cracking was also visible at these locations, this again being of the stress corrosion type. The method of cylinder construction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of a tube was removed and split, revealing a series of cracks, evenly spaced. Crack spacing coincided with fin spacing, indicating that stresses incurred during installation of the fins promoted failure. Metallographic examination showed intergranular, branched cracking, characteristic of stress corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... installations were examined. It was found that fracture of the bolts was by intergranular stress corrosion. A metallic copper-containing antiseizure compound on the bolts in a corrosive medium set up an electro-chemical cell that produced trenchlike fissures or pits for fracture initiation. Because the bolts...