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Stress-corrosion cracking

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... failure and provide preventive measures. The valve body was made of A216-WCC cast carbon steel. Its inner surface was covered with cracks stemming from surface pits. Investigators concluded that the failure was caused by a combination of hydrogen-induced corrosion cracking and sulfide stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... primary failure mechanism in the areas of the bolts directly exposed to the working environment. Corrosion damage on surfaces facing away from the work environment was caused primarily by chloride stress-corrosion cracking, aided by loose fitting threads. Thread gaps constitute a crevice where an...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... inside surfaces of the tubes. Transgranular stress-corrosion cracking, probably the result of sulphates under basic conditions, and dezincification occurred also as the result of galvanic corrosion under the deposits in the tubes. Recommendations were to use a closed-loop water system to eliminate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... was characteristic of corrosion fatigue. The second type of cracking originated at some of the major cracks. These cracks were branched and transgranular, which is characteristic of stress-corrosion caused by chlorides. The third crack mode, an intergranular network, was most probably the result of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel; the flange from type 321, and the ring gasket from 347. Examination revealed that the failure occurred by transgranular stress-corrosion cracking, initiated by the presence of polythionic acid. Detailed metallurgical investigation was subsequently conducted to identify what may have caused the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) indicated significant segregation of sulfur and chlorine along the grain boundaries. Failure was attributed to hypochlorous-acid (HClO)-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The HClO was formed by the reaction of HCl with atmospheric O 2 that entered the tube during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... revealed that the observed fractures were mixed brittle intergranular with ductile microvoid dimples. An extensive analysis of failed samples combined with a process of elimination indicated that the fractures were due to stress-corrosion cracking caused by an unidentified chemical species within the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... winding. It was concluded that failure initiation was caused by residual stress-driven stress-corrosion cracking, and it was recommended that the vendor provide more effective stress relief. Engine components Residual stress Spring steels Truck engines SAE J157 Stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... been exposed to the process stream was discolored. Failure of the spool was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking promoted by the presence of nitrates. Nitric acid contaminant in the sulfuric acid stream had diffused through the liner and accumulated in the annular space. Use of a liner that is more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... base metal and weld. Severe branching of the cracks characteristic of stress-corrosion cracking was observed. Microexamination revealed that crack propagation was transgranular further supporting the possibility of stress-corrosion cracking. Simulation tests carried out in the vessel confirmed this...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-corrosion cracking beneath the pitted areas on the OD. The likely cause of the cracking was chloride stress corrosion, with chlorides deriving from the marine atmosphere and concentrating under the insulation around the support rings. A complete insulation evaluation, including repair or replacement, was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... microscopy examination. The tests revealed that the tubes conformed to specification. Crack morphology indicated stress-corrosion cracking by chlorides present in the cooling water. Use of a duplex stainless steel (for example, UNS S32304 S31803) as a tube material was recommended. Chemical processing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... stress-corrosion cracking. It was surmised that seawater or some other corrosive substance was present in sufficient quantity to induce intergranular cracking at regions of high stress concentration. It was recommended that all tap bolts be replaced with new bolts made from an alloy with a higher copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and heat-affected zones (HAZs). Fracture/crack morphology was brittle and primarily intergranular and deposits at crack tips were primarily iron oxides with significant amounts of sodium compounds. On these bases, the cracking was characterized as intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... propagated by stress-corrosion cracking. The cause of cracking was twofold: use of interference-fit fasteners exposed to moisture intrusion from a marine environment and poor hole quality. Failure was intensified by dissimilar-metal contact in the presence of weak acidic electrolyte (dissociated MoS2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... disassembled and examined to determine the cause of failure. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis revealed significant peaks for chlorine and phosphorus, indicating failure by chloride stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Cracks in the liner and bellows exhibited a branched pattern also typical of SCC. Cracks through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... examination of the cracked area indicated stress-corrosion cracking, which had originated at rusted areas that had formed on longitudinal scratch marks on the outer surface of the pipe. The material was free from sensitization, and there was no significant amount of cold work. It was recommended that the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Two AISI type 316 stainless steel dished ends failed through the formation of intergranular stress-corrosion cracks (IGSCC) within a few months of service. The dished ends failed in the straight portions near the circumferential welds that joined the ends to the cylindrical portions of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... stress-corrosion cracking, promoted by the presence of residual welding stresses. Improved maintenance of check valves and routine inspection of critical monitoring systems (conductivity alarms, sodium analyzers, etc.) were recommended to help avoid future occurrences of severe boiler feedwater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A cold-formed Grade TP 304 stainless steel swaged region of a reheater tube in service for about 8000 hours cracked because of sulfur-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Cracking initiated from the external surface and a high sulfur content was detected in the outer diameter and...