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Stress-corrosion cracking

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of failure and provide preventive measures. The valve body was made of A216-WCC cast carbon steel. Its inner surface was covered with cracks stemming from surface pits. Investigators concluded that the failure was caused by a combination of hydrogen-induced corrosion cracking and sulfide stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... This was characteristic of corrosion fatigue. The second type of cracking originated at some of the major cracks. These cracks were branched and transgranular, which is characteristic of stress-corrosion caused by chlorides. The third crack mode, an intergranular network, was most probably the result of hydrogen sulphide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... at the inside surfaces of the tubes. Transgranular stress-corrosion cracking, probably the result of sulphates under basic conditions, and dezincification occurred also as the result of galvanic corrosion under the deposits in the tubes. Recommendations were to use a closed-loop water system to eliminate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to be the primary failure mechanism in the areas of the bolts directly exposed to the working environment. Corrosion damage on surfaces facing away from the work environment was caused primarily by chloride stress-corrosion cracking, aided by loose fitting threads. Thread gaps constitute a crevice where...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...) that was the source of each crack. The fracture of the oil quenched and tempered (HRC 50 ASTM A229) spring was by stress-corrosion cracking after the crane fell into the sea because fatigue cannot account for the fractures observed. The crane failure was caused by an overload created by the operator catching a free...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article commences with a discussion on the characteristics of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and describes crack initiation and propagation during SCC. It reviews the various mechanisms of SCC and addresses electrochemical and stress-sorption theories. The article explains...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... conditioning equipment Ammonia Phosphorus-deoxidized copper Stress-corrosion cracking Eddy current inspection was performed on a leaking absorber bundle in an absorption air-conditioning unit. The inspection revealed cracklike indications in approximately 50% of the tubes. The tube material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0047447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... showed the parts to be correctly heat treated. Cross sections of several of the parts showed pitting corrosion, and beneath the pits, stress-corrosion cracks in areas where the shafts had been bent during use. All the samples showed deep SCC in the areas where bending had occurred. In several cases...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0091622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
.... If redesign was impossible, an alloy more resistant to Cl-SCC, such as a duplex stainless steel or a high-molybdenum (4 to 6%) austenitic stainless steel, should be used. Chlorides Digesters Paper machines CF-8M UNS J92900 Stress-corrosion cracking A CF-8M (cast type 316) neck liner or manway...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... to the manufacturer for repair. Some of the units failed the hydrostatic test after they were repaired. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of branched transgranular cracks characteristic of stress-corrosion cracking. Only some of the tubes failed and these did so by stress-corrosion cracking. The most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... was replaced with an Inconel clad carbon steel inlet cone to combat the SCC. Chlorides Inlet cones Paper machines 304L UNS S30403 Stress-corrosion cracking The Pandia digester is a long cylindrical vessel which uses alkaline sulfite liquor to cook sawdust for pulping. The cylindrical vessel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... treatment following fabrication and welding. Chlorides Evaporators Heat exchangers Paper machines 316L UNS S31603 Stress-corrosion cracking The falling film black liquor evaporator consisted of flat twin plate heat exchangers and were employed in several effects to increase the black liquor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... UNS S30400 Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A tubular heat exchanger in a refinery reformer unit was found to be leaking after 1 month of service. The exchanger contained 167 type 304 stainless steel U-bent integral-finned tubes, 19 mm ( 3 4 in.) in outside diameter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0006898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
.... In addition, stressed fuses made of nickel silver and of cupro-nickel (80Cu-20Ni) were exposed to a drop of corrosive solution in the stressed area. All nickel silver specimens failed after two days of exposure to NH4NO3 solution. However, 17% of them failed and 67% showed crack initiation but no failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... C64700. Marine environments Materials selection Retainers C65500 UNS C65500 Stress-corrosion cracking Electrical contact-finger retainers blanked and formed from annealed copper alloy C65500 (high-silicon bronze A) failed prematurely by cracking while in service in switchgear aboard...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... austenitic stainless steels. Examination of the cracks at high magnification revealed them to be of the stress-corrosion type. The welds were of satisfactory quality. Cracking was also visible at these locations, this again being of the stress corrosion type. The method of cylinder construction introduced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of only aluminum alloys 6061-T6 and T651 and 2024-T6, T62, and T851. Fittings Fuel lines Marine environments Missiles 2017 UNS A92017 2014 UNS A92014 Stress-corrosion cracking During a routine inspection, cracks were discovered in several aluminum alloy coupling nuts ( Fig. 1a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Hydrogen-assisted stress-corrosion cracking failure occurred in four AISI 4137 chromium molybdenum steel bolts having a hardness of 42 HRC. The normal service temperature (400 deg C, or 750 deg F) was too high for hydrogen embrittlement but, the bolts were subjected also to extended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... lubricant in place of the copper-containing compound. As a result of these changes, bolt life was increased to more than three years. Bolts Bolts Lubricants 410 UNS S41000 Stress-corrosion cracking Intergranular corrosion Stainless steel bolts broke after short-term exposure in boiler feed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... Fasteners Intergranular corrosion Zinc-aluminum die casting alloy Stress-corrosion cracking The two nuts shown in Fig. 1(a) and (b) were used to secure the water-supply pipes to the threaded connections on hot-water and cold-water taps. The nut used on the cold-water tap ( Fig. 1a ) fractured...