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Stress corrosion cracking

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The applied stress was 100% of the YS of the steels ( a ) A216-WCC, ( b ) A217-WC9 Fig. 11 Transverse sections of steels showing SSC cracks, after corrosion testing according to NACE TM0177-96 method “A” standard in 5.0% NaCl + 0.5% CH 3 COOH at T = 23 °C and pH 3.5. The applied stress was 100...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... at the inside surfaces of the tubes. Transgranular stress-corrosion cracking, probably the result of sulphates under basic conditions, and dezincification occurred also as the result of galvanic corrosion under the deposits in the tubes. Recommendations were to use a closed-loop water system to eliminate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... This was characteristic of corrosion fatigue. The second type of cracking originated at some of the major cracks. These cracks were branched and transgranular, which is characteristic of stress-corrosion caused by chlorides. The third crack mode, an intergranular network, was most probably the result of hydrogen sulphide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the stress-corrosion cracking initiated from bolt threads. Sign of localized pits are visible. Magnification: 250× Fig. 9 Metallographic microstructure revealed clear localized pitting corrosion and typical transgranular stress-corrosion cracks. Magnification: 250× Fig. 10 Scanning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... UNS S30400 Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A tubular heat exchanger in a refinery reformer unit was found to be leaking after 1 month of service. The exchanger contained 167 type 304 stainless steel U-bent integral-finned tubes, 19 mm ( 3 4 in.) in outside diameter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0047447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... showed the parts to be correctly heat treated. Cross sections of several of the parts showed pitting corrosion, and beneath the pits, stress-corrosion cracks in areas where the shafts had been bent during use. All the samples showed deep SCC in the areas where bending had occurred. In several cases...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0091622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
.... If redesign was impossible, an alloy more resistant to Cl-SCC, such as a duplex stainless steel or a high-molybdenum (4 to 6%) austenitic stainless steel, should be used. Chlorides Digesters Paper machines CF-8M UNS J92900 Stress-corrosion cracking A CF-8M (cast type 316) neck liner or manway...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... to the manufacturer for repair. Some of the units failed the hydrostatic test after they were repaired. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of branched transgranular cracks characteristic of stress-corrosion cracking. Only some of the tubes failed and these did so by stress-corrosion cracking. The most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... was replaced with an Inconel clad carbon steel inlet cone to combat the SCC. Chlorides Inlet cones Paper machines 304L UNS S30403 Stress-corrosion cracking The Pandia digester is a long cylindrical vessel which uses alkaline sulfite liquor to cook sawdust for pulping. The cylindrical vessel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... treatment following fabrication and welding. Chlorides Evaporators Heat exchangers Paper machines 316L UNS S31603 Stress-corrosion cracking The falling film black liquor evaporator consisted of flat twin plate heat exchangers and were employed in several effects to increase the black liquor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... conditioning equipment Ammonia Phosphorus-deoxidized copper Stress-corrosion cracking Eddy current inspection was performed on a leaking absorber bundle in an absorption air-conditioning unit. The inspection revealed cracklike indications in approximately 50% of the tubes. The tube material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0006898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
.... In addition, stressed fuses made of nickel silver and of cupro-nickel (80Cu-20Ni) were exposed to a drop of corrosive solution in the stressed area. All nickel silver specimens failed after two days of exposure to NH4NO3 solution. However, 17% of them failed and 67% showed crack initiation but no failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... C64700. Marine environments Materials selection Retainers C65500 UNS C65500 Stress-corrosion cracking Electrical contact-finger retainers blanked and formed from annealed copper alloy C65500 (high-silicon bronze A) failed prematurely by cracking while in service in switchgear aboard...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... austenitic stainless steels. Examination of the cracks at high magnification revealed them to be of the stress-corrosion type. The welds were of satisfactory quality. Cracking was also visible at these locations, this again being of the stress corrosion type. The method of cylinder construction introduced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Accessories Aircraft components Scanning electron microscopy Swivels 7075 UNS A97075 Intergranular corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking A routine examination on a seat ejection system found that the catapult attachment swivel contained cracks on opposite sides of the part. This swivel, or bath tub...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Military aircraft use a cartridge ignition system for emergency engine starts. Analysis of premature failures of steel (AISI 4340) breech chambers in which the solid propellant cartridges were burned identified corrosion as one problem with an indication that stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... that the interference fit of the bushing in the lug hole be discontinued. Aircraft components Hinge brackets Marine environments 2014-T6 UNS A92014 Stress-corrosion cracking Surface treatment related failures Forged aluminum alloy 2014-T6 hinge brackets in naval aircraft rudder and aileron linkages...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Intergranular precipitation Shot peening 431 UNS S43100 Stress-corrosion cracking The T-bolt shown in Fig. 1(a) was part of the coupling for a bleed air duct of a jet engine on a transport plane. Specifications required that the 4.8-mm ( 3 16 -in.) diam T-bolt be made of AISI type 431...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... components Forgings Lugs Marine environments 2014-T6 UNS A92014 Intergranular corrosion Pitting corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking During a routine shear-pin check, the end lug on the barrel of the forward canopy actuator on a naval aircraft was found to have fractured. The lug was forged from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A nose landing gear cylinder made from AISI 4340 Ni-Cr-Mo alloy steel was found cracked and leaking, causing partial depressurization. Investigation revealed the crack to be a stress-corrosion type, judging by the 6500x electron fractograph. It had started in a region of concentrated...