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Stress corrosion cracking

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the cause of failure and provide preventive measures. The valve body was made of A216-WCC cast carbon steel. Its inner surface was covered with cracks stemming from surface pits. Investigators concluded that the failure was caused by a combination of hydrogen-induced corrosion cracking and sulfide stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... space. This was characteristic of corrosion fatigue. The second type of cracking originated at some of the major cracks. These cracks were branched and transgranular, which is characteristic of stress-corrosion caused by chlorides. The third crack mode, an intergranular network, was most probably...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to be the primary failure mechanism in the areas of the bolts directly exposed to the working environment. Corrosion damage on surfaces facing away from the work environment was caused primarily by chloride stress-corrosion cracking, aided by loose fitting threads. Thread gaps constitute a crevice where...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... occurred at the inside surfaces of the tubes. Transgranular stress-corrosion cracking, probably the result of sulphates under basic conditions, and dezincification occurred also as the result of galvanic corrosion under the deposits in the tubes. Recommendations were to use a closed-loop water system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is a form of corrosion and produces wastage in that the stress-corrosion cracks penetrate the cross-sectional thickness of a component over time and deteriorate its mechanical strength. Although there are factors common among the different forms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Hydrogen-assisted stress-corrosion cracking failure occurred in four AISI 4137 chromium molybdenum steel bolts having a hardness of 42 HRC. The normal service temperature (400 deg C, or 750 deg F) was too high for hydrogen embrittlement but, the bolts were subjected also to extended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... lubricant in place of the copper-containing compound. As a result of these changes, bolt life was increased to more than three years. Bolts Bolts Lubricants 410 UNS S41000 Stress-corrosion cracking Intergranular corrosion Stainless steel bolts broke after short-term exposure in boiler feed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... Fasteners Intergranular corrosion Zinc-aluminum die casting alloy Stress-corrosion cracking The two nuts shown in Fig. 1(a) and (b) were used to secure the water-supply pipes to the threaded connections on hot-water and cold-water taps. The nut used on the cold-water tap ( Fig. 1a ) fractured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Diagnosis of environmentally induced failures is greatly facilitated by metallographic analysis. As an example, a failure analysis of ASTM A574 material grade bolts is presented. The bolts served as bonnet screws in underground valves and failed due to stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... conditioning equipment Ammonia Phosphorus-deoxidized copper Stress-corrosion cracking Eddy current inspection was performed on a leaking absorber bundle in an absorption air-conditioning unit. The inspection revealed cracklike indications in approximately 50% of the tubes. The tube material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the several locations of cracking which, in all cases, were found to be similar and of the intergranular type filled with oxide or corrosion product. The association of the cracks with the weld seams indicated that contraction stresses from welding were primarily responsible. Failure of the absorber vessel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of only aluminum alloys 6061-T6 and T651 and 2024-T6, T62, and T851. Fittings Fuel lines Marine environments Missiles 2017 UNS A92017 2014 UNS A92014 Stress-corrosion cracking During a routine inspection, cracks were discovered in several aluminum alloy coupling nuts ( Fig. 1a...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article commences with a discussion on the characteristics of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and describes crack initiation and propagation during SCC. It reviews the various mechanisms of SCC and addresses electrochemical and stress-sorption theories. The article explains...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract One-quarter inch diameter 304 stainless steel cooling tower hanger rods failed by chloride-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The rods were located in an area of the cooling tower where the air contains drop lets of water below the mist eliminators and above the flow of water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... areas on the outer surfaces. The cracking was revealed by metallographic examination to have initiated from the outer surface, frequently at pits, and penetrated the tube wall in a transgranular, branching fashion. The crack features were characteristic of chloride stress-corrosion cracking. A change...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... min and slowly cooling for 3 h to room temperature. Air compressors Ammonia Stress relieving Tube sheets C46400 UNS C46400 Stress-corrosion cracking Tube sheets of an air compressor aftercooler ( Fig. 1a ) were found to be cracked and leaking approximately 12 to 14 months after...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... cracking arising from the combined effect of residual stresses and the corrosive effect of the material being centrifuged. If the shell had been stress-relieved after fabrication, the failure likely would not have occurred. Corrosion environments Extraction plants Extractors Hydro extractors...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-corrosion cracking. Stresses responsible for the cracking resulted from weld contraction. The pans had been hosed down periodically with water from local boreholes to remove sugar from the external surfaces, which introduced the corrosive medium. Chemical processing equipment Chlorides Evaporator...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... processing equipment Chlorides Piping 316 UNS S31600 Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A 680,000 kg (750 ton) per day ammonia unit was shut down following fire near the outlet of the waste heat exchanger. The fire had resulted from leakage of ammonia from the type 316 stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of the solution of caustic soda and possibly the temperature also were in the range known to produce stress-corrosion cracking of mild steels in the presence of stresses of sufficient magnitude. In this instance the location of the cracking suggested that residual stresses from welding, which approach yield point...