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Strain aging

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... In addition, the nature of the fracture and the results of the notched bar impact tests showed that in spite of the high C-content, the eye bolt had become brittle as a result of aging. Cleavage Eyebolts Materials selection Strain aging St 37-2N Brittle fracture After several years...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-stress levels after welding. Lamellar tearing Pressure vessels Strain aging Welded joints ASTM A201 Grade B Joining-related failures Brittle fracture A spherical carbon steel fixed-catalyst bed reactor failed after 20 years of service while in a standby condition ( Fig. 1 ). At the time...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... examination indicated brittle fracture caused by strain aging. Replacement of all studs on the man hole cover and examination of the boiler steel in other places were recommended. Steam engines Strain aging EN2 Brittle fracture A stud that was part of a manhole cover on an old...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract This case study demonstrates that Alloy 601 (UNS N06601) is susceptible to strain-age cracking. The observation illustrates the potential importance of post weld heat treatment to the successful utilization of this alloy in certain applications. Steam reforming Inconel 601 UNS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... embrittlement had developed following plastic straining and service at a temperature of 260 deg C (500 deg F) suggested that failure resulted from strain-age embrittlement. Brackets Ovens Rimming steel Brittle fracture A bracket which formed part of the carrier of a chain conveyor system used to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... was there any indication of a pre-existing crack or major discontinuity at the point of origin. A sulfur print suggested the hook had been forged from a billet cogged down from an ingot of semi-killed steel. Failure of this hook was attributed to strain-age embrittlement of the material at the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... mode with cleavage and ductile, dimpled shear. Hardness values as high as 35 HRC were measured in the bend area. The as-galvanized bolts fractured in a brittle manner. Failure was attributed to improper bending of the bolts, which provided a severely cold-worked bend area susceptible to strain-age...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... conclusions that bending of the connector tubes in the annealed condition induced critical strain near the neutral axis of the tube, which resulted in excessive growth of individual grains during the subsequent solution treatment. Recommendations included bending the connector tubes in the T4 temper as early...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... showed that the cracking could not be caused by creep. It was found that the cracking was confined to a 4-mm deep coarse-grained zone (ASTM 0-1) at the outer diameter. The cracking appeared to be caused by strain-induced intergranular oxidation. When the cracks reached the fine-grained material, the...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... geometric factors and materials aspects that influence the stress-strain behavior and fracture of ductile metals. It highlights fractures arising from manufacturing imperfections and stress raisers. The article presents a root cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of the fractography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... properties. Grain boundary sliding and dislocation motion were enhanced, causing a local increase in the steady state strain rate and the premature failure of the tube. Grain boundary sliding Plastic deformation Spalling Voids HK UNS J94224 Creep fracture/stress rupture The petrochemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The copper oxide particles can be easily observed in Fig. 11 . This failure is a result of months or years of deformation due to creep (discussed later), as shown in Fig. 12 . During normal utility operations, superheater tubes experience increasing temperature and strain over the life of the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... analysis of the crack, some of the irradiated material from the window was used to measure mechanical properties. Hot cell techniques for preparation of samples and testing were developed to determine true operating conditions of radiation, strain, and temperature. Mechanical tests Neutrons Protons...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... elongation (%) 14.0 17.5 21.4 21.1 Reduction in area (%) 15.3 23.2 33.9 38.2 Fig. 8 Ductility versus hydrogen content for aged uranium-0.8 titanium tested at two strain rates. Fig. 9 Fracture paths associated with predominantly ductile failure through martensitic platelets...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... elastic limit for a given alloy. Creep deformation may produce sufficiently large changes in the dimensions of a component to either render it useless for further service or cause fracture. When excessive creep deformation causes the material to reach or exceed some design limit on strain, the term creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... generate excessive strain on the location of the part surrounding the insert due to a differential in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the plastic and the metal insert. During molding, the plastic is in a molten state, which for the current material was approximately 370 °C. Through the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... fatigue life of tubular samples was found ( Ref 4 ) to be only 20% of that of solid bar samples when tested in static steam at 650 °C (1202 °F) with a total strain range of 0.5%. A more dramatic decrease in fatigue life was observed when a tensile and/or compressive hold period was incorporated into the...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and atom movement. When sufficient strain has developed at the grain boundaries, voids and microcracks develop. With continued operation at high temperatures, these voids and microcracks grow and coalesce to form larger and larger cracks, until failure occurs. The creep rate increases, and the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...., with a corresponding increase in the ultimate stress and a reduction in ductility, indicated that the material was slightly susceptible to ageing. It is possible, therefore, that if over-straining of the hook occurred on a previous occasion, then subsequent ageing of the material may have been a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... that it did not reproduce the manner of failure experienced by the part in service. As is apparent from Fig. 22 , the groove lay approximately 1 4 in. from the fillet weld and it was considered that the subsequent heating effect from this welding could have led to strain-age-embrittlement...