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Steel making

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... CaO was determined to be slag entrapment during the steel making process. It was recommended that the thermowell blanks be ultrasonically tested prior to machining and that the design be modified to make internal pressurization possible. Leakage Nonmetallic inclusions Nuclear reactor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... notch produced by flame cutting and welding. As corrective measures, fully silicon-killed 1020 steel with a maximum grain size of ASTM 5 were used to make new stop-block weldments. The weldments were normalized at 900 deg C after flame cutting and welding to improve microstructure and impact strength...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... that a molybdenum-bearing stainless steel such as 316L or 317L be used instead of 321. Heat exchanger tubes Leakage 321 UNS S32100 Pitting corrosion AISI type 321 stainless steel tubes - from both a heat exchanger, used to pre-heat make-up water, and from a blow-down unit in the same...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... examination of a failed bolt showed the path of the fracture and the secondary cracking associated with it were intergranular, suggesting that failure resulted from stress corrosion. A steel of the rimming type had been used to make the bar from which the bolt was forged. Cracks which originate at the root of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Type 347 stainless steel moderator circuit branch piping in a pressurized hot water reactor was experiencing frequent leakage. Investigation of the problem involved failure analysis of leaking pipe specimens, analytical stress analysis, and determination of “leak-before-break...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... make the connection. Use of the adapter which joined with a brass nipple, created an unacceptable dissimilar metal joint. The steel also provided a source for the generation of sparks. Loctite, a hydrocarbon sealant that is highly flammable and explosive in contact with pure oxygen, had been used to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Rollover accidents in light trucks and cars involving an axle failure frequently raise the question of whether the axle broke causing the rollover or did the axle break as a result of the rollover. Axles in these vehicles are induction hardened medium carbon steel. Bearings ride...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... reddish deposit on the inner surfaces of the tubes was revealed to be iron oxide and slight manganese dioxide. Effluent from steel mills upstream was indicated by the presence of these and other constituents to be the source of most of the solids found in the tubes. It was concluded that the tubing failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
..., and this could have been a further factor which promoted failure. It was suggested that the design and construction could be improved by either making the component in one piece or, if it was desired, to adapt a standard eyebolt. Bolts Design Carbon-manganese steel Joining-related failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... austenitic stainless steels has also been reported to be an intrinsic effect of increasing hydrogen content [ 11 ]. In general, a lower SFE makes dislocation cross-slip more difficult, resulting in less dislocation mobility. This leads to a condition of higher stress concentration at the grain boundaries as...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... ( Fig. 12 ). Some of the aluminum may have been related to the aluminum polishing compound used during sample preparation. However, most of these inclusions are typical of slag/oxide inclusions from the steel making process. Small amounts of these types of inclusions can have a deleterious effect on the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... dispensed a discolored drink with a sulfide odor, causing complaints from customers. Manufacturing specifications called for the valve body to be made of type 303 stainless steel, a free-machining steel chosen because of the substantial amount of machining necessary to make the parts. Other machine parts in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract Stainless steel liners (AISI type 321) used in bellows-type expansion joints in a duct assembly installed in a low-pressure nitrogen gas system failed in service. The duct assembly consisted of two expansion joints connected by a 32 cm (12 in.) OD pipe of ASTM A106 grade B steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A 455 mm diam x 8 mm thick wall carbon steel (ASTM A 53) discharge line for a circulating-water system at a cooling tower fractured in service; a manifold section cracked where a Y-shaped connection had been welded. Investigation (visual inspection and photographs) supported the...
Book Chapter

By Philip J. Kenny
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... , are not necessarily associated with the intergranular networks. This leads to the conclusion that these two crack modes are independent of each other. Fig. 4 Intergranular crack network in AISI 304 stainless steel elbow (unetched, 50×). The 13-year service life of the elbow makes it...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Several type 304L stainless steel dished ends used in the fabrication of cylindrical vessels developed extensive cracking during storage. All of the dished ends had been procured from a single manufacturer and belonged to the same batch. When examined visually, several rust marks were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Welded steel storage vessels used to hold mildly alkaline solution were produced in exactly the same manner from deep-drawn aluminum-killed SAE 1006 low-carbon steel sheet. After the cylindrical shell was drawn, a top low-carbon steel closure was welded to the inside diameter. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A carbon steel (ASTM A515 grade 70) pressure vessel failed by brittle fracture while being hydro tested in the fabricating shop. The fracture origin was a small crack at a welding arc strike associated with the toe of a nozzle weld. A fracture mechanics calculation indicated that this...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Galvanized A36 steel unsleeved shear-type anchor bolts failed during installation. The galvanized steel bolts were approximately 18 mm (0.7 in.) in diameter with a 90 deg bend between the long and short legs. As-fractured, sawcut, and unfractured specimens were examined. Failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... been used as a booster around the detonator to make sure of reaching a uniform stable explosion in a short time. Table 1 The chemical composition of studying materials (wt.%) Alloy Ti Cu Mo Nb Al Ni Cr Mn Si C Fe Steel ASTM A517 … 0.026 … 0.03 0.023 0.02 0.025 0.5...