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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Microstructural examinations on transverse cross sections of a steam reformer tube, showed the presence of large macrovoids elongated in the radial direction and emanating from the internal surface of the tube. The macrovoids were located at the interdendritic regions, and were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract The outlet-piping system of a steam-reformer unit failed by extensive cracking at four weld locations. The welded system consisted of Incoloy 800 (Fe-32Ni-21Cr-0.05C) pipe and fittings. The exterior surfaces of the system were insulated with rock wool that did not contain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The curved parts of exit pigtails made of wrought Incoloy 800H tubing used in steam reforming furnaces failed by performance after a period of service shorter than that predicted by the designers. Examination of a set of tubes consisting of both curved (perforated) and straight parts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... thus the furnace) could be used safely during the foreseen production period. Ammonia Chemical processing equipment Manifolds Oxidation Steam reformers Incoloy 800H UNS N08810 Creep fracture/stress rupture DSM Fertilizers operates several production units in The Netherlands. One of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Intergranular oxidation Mechanical properties Thermal stresses Tubing Weldments Incoloy 800H UNS N08810 Intergranular fracture Maintenance shutdown inspections regularly showed cracks in the welded outlet pigtail connections of a steam-methane reformer furnace. A...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... from these headers. The assembly is one of several exchangers suspended in an exhaust flue downstream of a methanol reformer. The internal coil design pressure is 8.96 MPa (1300 psig) at 649 °C (1200 °F) and flue temperatures are about 988 °C (1810 °F). Fig. 1 Elevation side view of the steam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Two steam-methane reformer furnaces were subjected to short-time heat excursions because of a power outage, which resulted in creep bulging in the Incoloy 800 outlet pigtails, requiring complete replacement. Each furnace had three cells, consisting of 112 vertical tubes per cell, each...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... service. The outlet hydrogen-rich gas resulting from the cracking of naphtha in the presence of steam had a temperature of approximately 850°C, the inlet temperature at the top of the tubes being 525°C. Sections were cut from the tube, which was a spindle cast A297 Grade HK 40 (25 Cr, 20 Ni, 0.4 C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Alloy 800 is a preferred alloy for service in hydrogen-reforming reactions at temperatures of 870 °C (1600 °F). After the hot gas mixture, containing CH 4 , CO, CO 2 , H 2 , and H 2 O, leaves the reformer furnace, waste heat is extracted by the production of steam within the waste heat boiler. If the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... cracking ( Fig. 1b ) and had originated from the inside surface. Transgranular branched cracking of austenitic stainless steels is frequently caused by chlorides in the presence of high residual stresses. The presence of chlorides is not unusual in a reformer unit. Although steam and steam condensate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... coating and the temperature of the tube wall approximates the temperature of the product. The operating conditions of the reformer furnace are: Charge: natural gas, steam, and CO 2 Temperature of charge at entrance to reformer: 510 C Skin temperature of the manifold: 800–820 C Product...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... tube did experience a temperature peak in excess of 727 deg C (1340 deg F). The long-term overheating conditions could have been the result of excessive heat flux and /or inadequate steam flow. In addition, the entire superheater bank should have been upgraded to Grade 722 material at the time of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract This case study demonstrates that Alloy 601 (UNS N06601) is susceptible to strain-age cracking. The observation illustrates the potential importance of post weld heat treatment to the successful utilization of this alloy in certain applications. Steam reforming Inconel 601 UNS...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... combustion gases, steam, or water to gases, vapors, or liquids of various types. Heat exchangers are of tube, plate, or sheet construction. Tubular heat exchangers are generally used for large fluid systems, whereas heat exchangers of plate or sheet construction are often preferred for smaller fluid streams...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a mixture of powdery carbon and metal particles ( Fig. 1 ). Metal dusting corrosion has negatively impacted the efficiency and productivity of processes within numerous industries. These include petrochemical processing (processes involving steam reforming of methane or natural gas, such as ammonia...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... efficiency and productivity of processes within numerous industries, including petrochemical processing (processes involving steam reforming of methane or natural gas, such as ammonia and methanol production), direct iron-ore reduction, coal degasification, and heat treating. Fig. 1 Metal dusting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... carburized from both outside diameter and inside diameter surfaces, it would through-carburize in 11.09 h at 870 °C (1600 °F). Natural gas and steam are reacted at high temperatures of 870 to 925 °C (1600 to 1700 °F) in a catalyst tube to form a mixture of CO 2 , CO, H 2 , and CH 4 gases. These...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... on the internal surface of severely over-heater boiler and superheater tubes results from the so-called “steam-iron reaction,” 3 Fe + 4 H 2 O = Fe 3 O 4 + 4 H 2 which becomes significant at metal temperatures of the order of 600°C. The scale found externally is due to...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... contained high thermal stresses that resulted from injection of steam a short distance upstream from the coupling. Chemical analysis revealed that the cast Monel coupling had a silicon content of 1.97%, whereas the wrought Monel piping had a silicon content of 0.10%. Castings of high-silicon Monel generally...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1