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Springs, Materials substitution

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0092131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., Materials substitution Cold-drawn high-carbon steel Gross yielding The engine of an automobile lost power and compression and emitted an uneven exhaust sound after several thousand miles of operation. When the engine was dismantled, it was found that the outer spring on one of the exhaust valves...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... that stress concentration depended on end hook bend sharpness. Also, interference fits are to be avoided in the end hooks of small springs. Additionally, a need for careful consideration of the stress-corrosion properties of candidate materials for spring applications has been demonstrated by stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., abuse, or occurrence of complex stress fields in service. A seemingly innocent substitution of material resulted in distortion of small volute springs made of cold-worked spring-tempered Inconel. Normally, the material was purchased as cold-flattened wire, but one lot of springs was formed from cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is intended simply to illustrate the differences in deformation behavior between two different materials. Practically, one would not substitute stainless steel for low-carbon steel to increase load capacity. One would use a heavier section or perhaps a higher-strength alloy. When loads increase gradually...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... are used along with geometric variables and restraint levels to estimate welding preheat temperatures in order to avoid high HAZ hardening. A client submitted a helical compression spring that had failed during installation. The material was identified as rectangular chromium-vanadium steel wire per...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... lattice spacing, d 0 , can be substituted with the d -spacing measured for the specimen of interest at ψ (psi) = 0; that is, the unstressed lattice spacing need not be known precisely for the material in question ( Ref 3 ). To evaluate stresses in the direction normal to the specimen surface σ 33...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , Sensing for Materials Characterization Processing and Manufacturing , ASNT , 1998 28. Ruud C.O. and Kozaczek K.J. , Errors Induced in Triaxial Stress Tensor Calculations Using Incorrect Lattice Parameters , Proc. 1994 SEM Spring Conference , Society for Experimental Mechanics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract This article aims to identify and illustrate the types of overload failures, which are categorized as failures due to insufficient material strength and underdesign, failures due to stress concentration and material defects, and failures due to material alteration...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., or for finite-life estimates of materials that do, the fatigue strength at a given number of cycles can be substituted for the intercept on the stress-amplitude axis. Examples of the Haigh and constant-life diagrams are provided in Fig. 3 and 4 ( Ref 1 ). Figure 4 is of interest also because of its...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract Overload failures refer to the ductile or brittle fracture of a material when stresses exceed the load-bearing capacity of a material. This article reviews some mechanistic aspects of ductile and brittle crack propagation, including a discussion on mixed-mode cracking, which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... condition ( Fig. 26a ) and after heat treatment ( Fig. 26b , c ). Decarburization of hardened coil springs is not desired, because it reduces the fatigue life of the spring. Another example of a material quality problem is shown in Fig. 25(a) and (b) . These micrographs show a seam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a detrimental effect on fatigue life. For materials that do not have a fatigue limit or for finite-life assessment of structures, the fatigue strength can be substituted and supplemented by the stress amplitude for a given number of cycles (finite-life fatigue diagram). Variable-Amplitude Loading Because...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the general methods and approaches from the perspective of a reconstruction analyst and includes discussions relevant to materials failure analysts at the incident scene. The elements of accident reconstruction are described. These have conceptual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... but was not adopted when the traditional approach was automated. The traditional method is not rigid, because other polishing cloths may be substituted, and one or more of the polishing steps may be omitted. Times and pressures could be varied as well, to suit the needs of the work or the material being prepared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysts and materials failure analysts. This article focuses on the general methods and approaches from the perspective of a reconstruction analyst. It describes the elements of accident reconstruction, which have conceptual similarity with the principles for failure analysis of material incidents...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Table 1 Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Test method Properties measured Use in failure analysis Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) Molecular bond structure Material identification...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., to distinguish 304 stainless from 316 stainless steel, without the added expense of a proper bulk chemical analysis. Especially in routine investigations where the requesting party has documentation showing that the proper material was used, this semiquantitative “microchemical” method can substitute...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel, general) Introduction Experimental Materials and Methods Results and Discussion Conclusions Recommendations Acknowledgments References References 1. Castanier S. , LeMetayer-Levrel G. , Perthuisot J.P. : Ca-carbonates precipitation and limestone...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... substitutions and processing mistakes are often encountered. At other times, the physical evidence suggests that slightly unusual or wholly inappropriate materials and processes were employed. Scientific failure analysis may reveal that the original design was inadequate or had not considered all...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... processing steps are usually best addressed by specialists. Many codes and specifications allow a broad range of materials selections, whereas other codes are very specific and allow few substitutions. What It Must Be After the component is envisioned, the environment is evaluated, and the constraints...