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Springs (elastic)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0051293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... as to select a grade of spring steel that would be more corrosion resistant than 302 stainless. Materials selection Spring steels Springs (elastic) Water feeders 302 UNS S30200 304 UNS S30400 Corrosion fatigue After six months of operating a new chicken house, a farmer noticed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0051292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... was operating. An alternative ink that contained no free chloride ions was recommended. Chlorides Printing Springs (elastic) 302 UNS S30200 Corrosion fatigue After only two months of use in a printing operation, type 302 stainless steel springs were breaking into several pieces. The springs were...
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 1 Spring and dashpot models. (a) Linear elastic material with constant modulus slope, E. (b) Dashpot with linear liquid viscosity slope, η. Reprinted under the Creative Commons CC BY license from Ref 1 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0051294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... direction. This movement into the unwind direction was concluded to be happening often enough to initiate fatigue. The stress relieving temperature was recommended to be increased to reduce the residual stresses from coiling and hence improve fatigue performance. Bending fatigue Springs (elastic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046874
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... alloy, such as Hastelloy B or C. Relief valves Springs (elastic) Torsional fatigue H21 UNS T20821 Corrosion fatigue The safety valve on a steam turbogenerator was set to open when the steam pressure reaches 2400 kPa (348 psi). The pressure had not exceeded 1790 kPa (260 psi) when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the minimum tolerable defect size was also recommended. Aircraft components Commercial planes Lubrication systems Springs (elastic) Wire 321 UNS S32100 Metalworking-related failures Fatigue fracture Background Two stainless steel springs in oil ring lip seals failed. Applications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... marks on the inside edge of the spring. An investigation of loads encountered in service indicated that the springs had been loaded to a large fraction of the yield strength. Redesign of the spring mechanism was recommended. Springs (elastic) Woody fracture ASTM A228 UNS K08501 Fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article summarizes the general process of distortion failure analysis. It also discusses three types of distortion failures that provide useful insights into the problems of analyzing unusual mechanisms of distortion. These include elastic distortion, ratcheting, and inelastic cyclic buckling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can be plastic or elastic and may or may not be accompanied by fracture. There are two main types of distortion: size distortion, which refers to a change in volume (growth or shrinkage), and shape distortion (bending or warping), which refers to a change in geometric form. Most of the examples...
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 3 Illustration of viscoelastic behavior. Both viscous and elastic natures are observed. (a) Spring and dashpot in (a) series, Maxwell model and (b) parallel, Kelvin-Voigt model. Note that for viscoelastic materials, force depends on both deformation and rate of deformation and vice-versa. More
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 2 Illustration of deformation behavior. (a) Spring. (b) Rotational solid torsion bar. (c) Tensile solid specimen. Flow, Deformation, Solid behavior, Elastic nature: F = F(x); F ≠ F(v) ; F -force; x , Displacement; v, velocity; θ, torque; Θ, angular displacement More
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 17 Mechanical models and typical behavior. (a) Ideal Hookean solid (σ = E ε; spring model; elastic response). (b) Ideal viscous Newtonian liquid (σ = η ε ̇ ; dashpot model). (c) Maxwell’s mechanical model for a viscoelastic material. (d) Voigt’s mechanical model for a viscoelastic More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... treatment Table 3 Tensile properties after heat treatment Leaf spring coupon number Yield strength, 0.2% offset Ultimate tensile Elongation, % Modulus of elasticity, MPa ksi MPa ksi GPa 10 6 psi 6(b) 1055 153 1400 203 28.0 176 25.5 7(b) 1089 158 1385 207...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... component of response to both stress and strain. Therefore, when modeling viscoelasticity and particularly when limiting that response analysis in one dimension, one can define the purely elastic component to be a spring, and the viscous liquid component to be a dashpot. Figure 1 depicts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... applications by inducing a compressive residual stress on the surface. Failures of Shape Memory Alloy Springs Shape memory or nitinol (NiTi) alloys have typical mechanical elastic properties and super-elastic properties that allow unique stress-strain relationships. Springlike components manufactured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on the tested semi-float axle The leaf springs deflect substantially during side loading. Spring deflection and axle bending constitute stored elastic energy. This energy is suddenly released at the time of fracture. The axle is restrained from being shot out of the carrier by the C clip and a rebound...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-ray elastic constants of the material, variations of σ ij are the stress-tensor components, ϕ is the angle of the direction of strain measurement with respect to the frame of reference, ψ is the angle subtended by the bisector of the incident and diffracted beam, with the specimen normal, and ε ϕψ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... + σ 22 + σ 33 )         +   ½ S 2 ( σ 13 cos ϕ + σ 23 sin ϕ ) sin2 ψ where ½ S 2 and S 1 are the x-ray elastic constants of the material, variations of σ ij are the stress-tensor components, φ is the angle of the direction of strain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of fracture mechanics. The fracture mechanics approach is an important part of stress analysis at the tips of sharp cracks or discontinuities. The article reviews fracture mechanics concepts, including linear elastic fracture mechanics, elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, and subcritical fracture mechanics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... elastic fracture mechanics analysis, with some mention of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. The article describes the probabilistic aspects of fatigue and fracture. Information on crack-growth simulation of the material is also provided. crack-growth simulation elastic-plastic fracture...