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Spring steels

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0051293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... stainless steel, and the operating stresses were safely within the design limits given by the Goodman diagram. The springs were revealed by scanning electron microscopy to contain numerous cracks on their inside surface, and these cracks were all at 45 deg to the wire axis. The solution was recommended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Grease-wiper springs for cams formed from stampings of 0.25-mm thick carbon spring steel (0.65 to 0.80% C) fractured at the 0.025 mm radius on the stamped 135 deg corner at a 90 deg bend after 5,000,000 cycles. Tool marks 2 to 2.3 mm from the center of the stamped bend were disclosed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001902
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the modified SAE 6150 spring steel, Canada's cold weather which may have had an embrittling effect on the steel, and cumulative fatigue damage from severe landing loads during service life. Replacement with heavier-duty spring legs will probably not eliminate this type of failure, but their use has reduced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...Abstract Abstract A steel spring used in an automotive application suddenly began to fail in the field, although “nothing had changed” in the fabrication process. Fatigue tests using springs fabricated prior to field failures lasted 500,000 cycles to failure, whereas fatigue tests performed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... bars had been fabricated from spring steel which, according to stress calculations, did not have sufficient torsional strength. Examination of the damaged parts confirmed the finding, revealing that all fractures started at a shoulder radius in an area of high stress concentration. Based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The springs formed from 3.8 mm diam cold-drawn carbon steel wire failed to comply with load-test requirements. A split wire in the spring was revealed by investigation. A smooth heat-tinted longitudinal zone was observed in the fracture. It was concluded that the spring failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Fig. 1 SEM fractograph of fracture surfaces showing striation patterns. 529×. Abstract Abstract Failure occurred in a type 304 stainless steel leaf spring attached to the undercarriage assembly of an airport shuttle train. Failure analysis showed that the fracture was caused by low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract A steel valve spring meeting Steel-Iron-Test 1570 fractured during the high-stress condition of the operation of its valve. Metallographic examination of a transverse section adjacent to the fracture and a longitudinal section through the crack showed the steel was free of major...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0051292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Type 302 stainless steel springs used in a printing operation failed by breaking into several pieces after two months in service. The springs were operating over a very small deflection and were regulating the flow of ink, in which they were constantly immersed. Fatigue fractures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... compression springs were returned to the manufacturer after failing in service well short of the component design life. Spring design specifications required conformance to SAE J157, “Oil Tempered Chromium Silicon Alloy Steel Wire and Springs.” Each spring was installed in a separate heavy truck engine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Fig. 1 Valve-spring failure due to residual shrinkage pipe. (a) Macrograph showing fracture, as indicated by arrow. (b) Fracture surface; pipe is indicated by arrow. Abstract Abstract Two outer valve springs made from air-melted 6150 pretempered steel wire broke during production...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract The power-type counterbalance spring, formed from hardened-and-tempered carbon steel strip and subsequently subjected to phosphating treatment, fractured at the two locations during fatigue testing. A rust colored dark band at the inside edge of the fracture surface was disclosed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the fatigue fracture of spring. (a) 945×. (b) The defect appears as a subsurface void. 2520×. Fig. 4 SEM fractographs of the surface of spring . (a) Region indicated by arrow F in Fig. 2 . 5985×. (b) Overload features. 2520×. Abstract Abstract Failure of AISI type 321 stainless steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel arc damage SEM imaging fracture morphology spring steel (spring steel, general) Introduction Analysis Conclusion References References 1. Davis J.R. (ed.), ASM Metals Handbook Volume 12: Fractography ( ASM International , Materials Park , 1987 ), pp. 280 – 281...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract A fractograph of the failed spring was found to indicate light streaks are parallel to the wire axis. A darker depressed area was visible between the streaks and below the center of the fractograph in which distinct outlines that represent sharp corners in the depressions were revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... with successive cycles. Cracks Galling Orientation Tensile stress Valve spring steel Surface treatment related failures ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... This was reported to have occurred when the fracture plane changed to an angle with the wire axis in response to the torsional strain. The spring failure was concluded to have originated at the seam. Service life Stresses Spring steel Fatigue fracture The failure shown in Fig. 1(a) began at the seam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The pawl spring which was part of a selector switch used in telephone equipment failed. The springs were blanked from 0.4 mm (0.014 in.) thick tempered 1095 steel and then nickel plated. Numerous pits around the rivet holes were revealed by microscopic examination of longitudinal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... spring that operated in a pneumatic cylinder was designed for infinite life at a maximum stress level of 620 MPa (90 ksi). Several such springs broke after only 240,000 cycles. No flaws were revealed by visual inspection. Cadmium plating Cylinders Electric arcs Pneumatic devices Spring steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... In order to decrease the stress, the construction has meantime been modified. Cracking (fracturing) Helical springs Torsional fatigue Spring steel Fatigue fracture A helical compression spring with 10 turns made of 1.8 mm thick wire which was under high pressure during tension applied...