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Spring steel

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Grease-wiper springs for cams formed from stampings of 0.25-mm thick carbon spring steel (0.65 to 0.80% C) fractured at the 0.025 mm radius on the stamped 135 deg corner at a 90 deg bend after 5,000,000 cycles. Tool marks 2 to 2.3 mm from the center of the stamped bend were disclosed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046874
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... (625 to 750 deg F). Because the spring was enclosed and mounted above the valve, its temperature was probably slightly lower. The 195 mm (7 in.) OD x 305 mm (12 in.) long spring was made from a 35 mm (1 in.) diam rod of H21 hot-work tool steel. It had been in service for about four years and had been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract The power-type counterbalance spring, formed from hardened-and-tempered carbon steel strip and subsequently subjected to phosphating treatment, fractured at the two locations during fatigue testing. A rust colored dark band at the inside edge of the fracture surface was disclosed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0051292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Type 302 stainless steel springs used in a printing operation failed by breaking into several pieces after two months in service. The springs were operating over a very small deflection and were regulating the flow of ink, in which they were constantly immersed. Fatigue fractures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The pawl spring which was part of a selector switch used in telephone equipment failed. The springs were blanked from 0.4 mm (0.014 in.) thick tempered 1095 steel and then nickel plated. Numerous pits around the rivet holes were revealed by microscopic examination of longitudinal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Failure occurred in a type 304 stainless steel leaf spring attached to the undercarriage assembly of an airport shuttle train. Failure analysis showed that the fracture was caused by low-cycle, reversed bending fatigue. The stresses leading to failure were imposed by poor alignment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0051293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... stainless steel, and the operating stresses were safely within the design limits given by the Goodman diagram. The springs were revealed by scanning electron microscopy to contain numerous cracks on their inside surface, and these cracks were all at 45 deg to the wire axis. The solution was recommended...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 H21 tool steel safety-valve spring that fractured from corrosion fatigue in moist air. (a) Photograph of two of the 12 pieces into which the spring shattered. 0.3×. (b) Light fractograph showing typical corrosion-fatigue origin (arrow) and brittle final fracture. 0.7× More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Landing-gear spring, 6150 steel, that broke during a hard landing. (a) Configuration and dimensions (given in inches) of the spring. (b) Fractograph showing fatigue crack that initiated the brittle fracture. 7× More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Carbon steel counterbalance spring that failed during fatigue testing. (a) Macrograph showing fracture locations (arrows). 1 3 ×. (b) Fracture surface showing dark band (arrow) that nucleated fracture. 6×. (c) Etch pits in surface. 100× More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Split wire in a 3.8-mm (0.148-in.) diam carbon steel spring (top). The spring at bottom appears to have a seam along its entire length, as indicated by the arrow. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Nickel plated 1095 steel pawl spring that fractured by fatigue. (a) Configuration and dimensions (given in inches) of the failed component. (b) Micrograph showing pits at edge of rivet hole. 45×. (c) Micrograph of area adjacent to rivet hole, showing delaminations (arrows) filled More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Stainless steel toggle-switch spring that fractured by fatigue originating at a tool mark. (a) Configuration and dimensions (given in inches) of the spring. (b) Fracture surface, 85×; fracture origin (arrow) is at lower edge of tool mark. (c) SEM fractograph of fracture origin, 1000 More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Edge structure of a spring washer of silicon steel, broken ahead of time in a fatigue test. Cross section, etched in nital. 100 × More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 17 Torsional fatigue failure of boron-containing alloy steel helical spring. Fatigue initiated at an abraded area marked by arrows. The material in compression coil springs is subjected to unidirectional torsion, so fatigue propagates on a single helical surface. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 37 Fracture surface of a hardened steel valve spring that failed in torsional fatigue. Arrow indicates fracture origin at a subsurface nonmetallic inclusion. More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 34 Coil spring made from AISI H12 tool steel that cracked after heat treatment. A tight seam that was not removed by centerless grinding before heat treatment opened during hardening (arrows). Original magnification: 0.3× More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 35 Landing-gear spring, 6150 steel, that broke during a hard landing. (a) Configuration and dimensions (given in inches) of the spring. (b) Fractograph showing fatigue crack that initiated the brittle fracture; magnification, 7× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001902
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... SAE 6150 spring steel, Canada's cold weather which may have had an embrittling effect on the steel, and cumulative fatigue damage from severe landing loads during service life. Replacement with heavier-duty spring legs will probably not eliminate this type of failure, but their use has reduced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract A steel spring used in an automotive application suddenly began to fail in the field, although “nothing had changed” in the fabrication process. Fatigue tests using springs fabricated prior to field failures lasted 500,000 cycles to failure, whereas fatigue tests performed on springs...