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Spheroidizing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., respectively. Visual examination of the bellows revealed cracks in heavily cold-worked areas (both inside and outside) and considerable corrosion. SEM analysis showed a classical intergranular failure pattern with microcracking. The threaded tie rod microstructure contained spheroidized carbide that was more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cracking and creep void formation at the fissure. A nearly continuous band of graphite nodules was observed on the surface of the fissure. In addition to the graphite band formation, the microstructure near the failure exhibited carbide spheroidization from long-term overheating in all the tube regions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... penetration by molten copper. Particles of copper were seen in scale deposits on the bore of the tube. The tube in general showed a ferritic structure with partially spheroidized carbide. The fact that fusion of the copper had occurred indicated temperatures of 1100 deg C (2012 deg F) had been experienced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Some of the blisters were pierced by drilling a hole in the center and at the same time applying a small flame. In several cases combustion of the escaping gas caused minor explosions, a result characteristic of hydrogen. Etching showed the material to be a low-carbon steel in the partly spheroidized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-alloy steel tubing. In steam environments, the generally accepted oxidation limit for plain carbon steel is 454 °C (850 °F), while for Grade T22 it is approximately 580 °C (1075 °F). A spheroidized microstructure with graphite nodules indicated that tube 1 was operating at a temperature significantly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the failure on the bottom of the pendant 205 mm (8 in.) from the failure, and in the same plane as the failure but 180° around the perimeter of the tube. The structure at the failure was completely spheroidized carbides in a ferrite matrix ( Fig. 2a ). The samples from locations 2 and 3 are nearly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... fracture was very low. Fractographic examination by SEM revealed generally intergranular features, but the level of oxidation damage to the features was severe. The cross section ( Fig. 1b ) exhibited creep voids and spheroidization of the pearlite within the ferrite matrix. Some features suggested...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046874
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... (0.045 in.) in diameter had initiated two cracks 0.7 and 1.5 mm (0.028 and 0.060 in.) deep. The cracks contained an iron oxide corrosion product that enclosed spheroidal carbide particles. The microstructure of the spring consisted of spheroidal carbide particles in a matrix of tempered martensite. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... microstructure of SAE-192 carbon steel contains ferrite and pearlite phases. However, the microstructure of tube 2 in the fracture area (as well as at some distance from the rupture), consisted of ferrite with grain boundary cementite or spheroidal carbides (Fe 3 C) and no pearlite phases. Occurrence of such a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... membranes which restrict the tubes from freely expanding and contracting. The original lamellar pearlite carbides along the fireside of the tube had completely spheroidized in situ after very short operating times in both boilers. This condition suggests the boiler tube walls experienced sustained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... microstructural change can embrittle steel parts, and reduce strength and creep resistance. Pearlite decomposes by either graphitization or spheroidization. Both mechanisms are temperature-dependent and occur at temperatures in the 427 to 732 °C (800 to 1350 °F) range. Graphitization usually occurs at...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... section through the fractured surface, including the dark region at the center of the fracture. The structure in the unetched condition shown in Fig. 4 has a spheroidal graphite distribution of an estimated 90% ASTM type I and type II nodules with 150 nodules/mm 2 . The matrix microstructure was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... section through the fractured surface, including the dark region at the center of the fracture. The structure in the unetched condition shown in Fig. 4 has a spheroidal graphite distribution of an estimated 90% ASTM type I and type II nodules with 150 nodules/mm 2 . The matrix microstructure was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... above 700–750 °F. The presence of the black sooty deposit on the inside of the coil as well as the presence of spheroidized pearlite on the tube ID indicates that this material was exposed to temperatures above 750 °F, and as evidenced by the sooty deposit, to temperatures above 900 °F. There is...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... detecting the early stages of creep, fatigue, grain-boundary separations, and other problems. It can also be used to detect spheroidization or graphitization of steels Boat samples of headers and piping are generally removed only after cracking has been detected by other means. Tube stubs may be removed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... tube through the region of failure showed that the attack by the alkali acid sulfate had significantly reduced tube-wall thickness. Metallographic examination revealed a structure that was largely normal except for marked spheroidization of the carbides, which indicated appreciable service time at...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... removed for more intensive investigation. Transverse and longitudinal cross-sections were prepared in accordance with ASTM E3-86 and etched with 10% nital in accordance with ASTM E407-89. The matrix consisted of tempered martensite with fine spheroidal carbides as well as a coarse cellular carbide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... the cementite was somewhat stronger spheroidized ( Fig. 1 ) than in that of shipments S1 ( Fig. 2 ) and S2 ( Fig. 3 ), whose lamellar pearlite structure was still recognizable. This is most likely connected with the fine grained steel's lower supercooling propensity of the austenitic transformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... thinning low-alloy carbon steel spheroidization SEM backscattered electron analysis microstructural transformation T12 (chromium-molybdenum low-alloy carbon steel) Low-alloy CrMo carbon steels, such as T12, T22, and T23, are widely used as high-temperature economiser tubes (e.g...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... 6 Fractograph showing the rough machined surface at the top of the small-diameter hole. Microscopic examination of a section of the cracked insert disclosed massive carbide particles and small spheroidal carbides precipitating at the grain boundaries. The matrix was comprised of untempered...