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Spalling wear

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... metallographic examination. Fracture occurred through a white band. Failure was attributed to formation of envelopes of untempered martensite under the chamfer that ruptured explosively during service. Automotive Automotive Drive shaft Fe-0.85C-0.71Mn Spalling wear Brittle fracture A...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... beneath the surface, in the case of stationary roll/plate contact, where 2 α is the contact zone width. Repetitive surface contact results in pits, wear debris, and fatigue cracks leading to severe surface damage and spalling [ 8 ]. Fragments from spalled straightening rolls were brought from a steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract An AISI 4320 H transfer gear shaft that was part of a transmission sustained severe surface damage after 12 h of dynamometer testing at various gearing and torque loads. The damage was characterized by generalized wear and spalling. Examination of a cross section of the shaft that...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0046388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of the bolt and thimble hole to equal hardness values would produce the best wear characteristics. However, loading of case-hardened bolts could cause the case to spall or fracture from the base metal; also, case hardening the bolt would not improve its impact strength. The wearability and the impact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... from a solid surface and produce cavitation damage. Pitting is often the first macroscopic damage, but spalling can eventually occur. Cavitation in spillways of dams often produces spalling of large pieces of concrete. The mechanisms in wear and erosion processes mostly involve the mechanics of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... subsurface crack nucleation and subsequent delamination or spalling of surface material Plastic deformation: while not leading to actual material removal, causes displacement of material from the contact area through “mushrooming” Several of these mechanisms of impact wear are shown in Fig. 4...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... process, and the indenting abrasive causes localized fracture of the wear material. These cracks then freely propagate locally around the wear groove, resulting in additional material removal by spalling. Fig. 4 Microscopic mechanisms of material removal between abrasive particles and the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... brief discussion on coatings to improve surface-initiated fatigue and wear is included, due to the similarity to RCF and the increasing criticality of this failure mode. The article presents a working knowledge of Hertzian contact theory, describes the life prediction of rolling-element bearings, and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... microstructure) indicated that the bearing materials met the specification requirements. However, closer inspection revealed areas of discoloration, or nonuniform contact marks, on the ID surface of the inner ring. The unusual wear pattern suggested that the bearing was not properly mounted, thus subjecting it...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... surface of the die was covered with fatigue cracks and many fillets had been plastically deformed. Several other types of damage were also observed, including areas of oxidation, corrosion pits, voids, abrasive wear, die adhesion, and thermal fatigue. Fatigue cracking was the primary cause of failure with...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cast iron hub. The wear and pitting pattern in the addendum area of the gear teeth indicated that either the gear or pinion was out of alignment. Beach marks observed on the fractured surface of the gear indicated that fatigue was the cause of the gear failure. Similar gears should be inspected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... material, which are discussed in the following sections along with examples. The tools available for failure analysis are then covered. Further, the article describes the categories of mode of failure: distortion or undesired deformation, fracture, corrosion, and wear. It provides information on the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the manufacturer and a replacement requested. Case depth Chipping Shafts (power) EN36A (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture Spalling wear A crane long-travel worm drive shaft was found to be chipped during unpacking after delivery. On arrival, the keyway was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... lower face of the boss and the die and an improved method of inserting or removing the bolt to avoid hammering (use of a wrench on a square or hexagonal boss) were also recommended. Cracking (fracturing) Screw threads Stress concentration 1045 UNS G10450 Spalling wear (Other, general, or...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... failures Spalling wear A sledgehammer chipped during use. The chip struck a bystander in the eye, leading to its loss. The hammerhead material was UNS G10800 (AISI/SAE grade 1080). Figure 1 is a side view of the hammerhead. The hammer is a blacksmith's double-face sledge...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) was accomplished by both visual and stereomicroscopic inspection. All exhibited deformation and wear. A flat spot was apparent on each, which varied in size among all the individual balls. Spalling was also visible in varying degrees. No heat tinting or elevated temperature indications were observed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... brittle fracture. On the other hand, jaws that are only “tough” have rapid tooth wear even though they have the capability to withstand brittle fracture [ 1 ]. Hence, the material required for the production of crusher jaws must possess both high toughness and excellent wear resistance [ 2 ]. While...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... grooves, as shown in Fig. 6 ) were apparent. Features indicative of rolling wear under high speed or high load (deformation tongues, surface cracking, etc.) were also evident ( Fig. 7 ). Although these features do not suggest race fatigue as a cause, fatigue cracking and the spalling that accompanies...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... initiated. When the most severe crack reached an appropriate size, the race fractured from the collar. The rotating balls shifted from their mean path, causing excessive wear and ultimately deforming the cage collar. The whole assembly became jammed and rendered the engine unserviceable. This study...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... twofold. One purpose may be to determine the relationship between the microstructure and the crack path (in failures involving fracture) and/or the nature of corrosion or wear damage. The second purpose is to determine whether processing or service conditions have produced undesirable microstructural...