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Solvents, environment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... material is stressed in the presence of a solvent environment, solvent-induced cracking, or environmentally induced cracking, can occur, resulting in a catastrophic brittle-like failure. This phenomenon also occurs with other plastics and other solvents. Solvent-induced cracking of the polycarbonate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... confirmed the suitability of the nickel-chromium alloys for such an environment. Inconel 625 was selected for fabrication of a new preheater/exchanger. Heat exchangers, materials selection Incinerators, materials selection Internal oxidation Nickel-base alloys, corrosion Solvents, environment 309...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...; that is, shattering does not occur in the absence of stress with solvent exposure. However, when PC material is stressed in the presence of a solvent environment, solvent-induced or environmentally induced cracking can occur, resulting in a catastrophic brittle-like failure. This phenomenon also occurs with other...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... factor. One final effect of environment on polymer performance is that of temperature. Polymeric materials will exhibit a transition between two very different types of mechanical behavior as the environmental temperature passes through what is called the “glass transition temperature” ( T g ) ( Ref...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Localized carbide segregation in the original plate served as preferential corrosion sites. Had the tanks been hydrostatically tested in a proper manner, the pitting may not have occurred. Corrosion environments Nitric acid Sewage Solvents Storage tanks 304L UNS S30403 Pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... corrosion control corrosion prevention corrosion testing corrosion-related failures environmental-related failures metals nonmetals CORROSION is the deterioration of a material by a reaction of that material with its environment. A study by NACE International in 2016 examined nine world economic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in an energetic environment, emit light at a series of narrow wavelength intervals. These intervals, termed emission lines, form a pattern—the emission spectrum—that is characteristic of the atom generating it. For OES, the energetic environment is typically a plasma, and the device used to produce such a plasma...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) Continuous welding is necessary for horizontal stiffeners to prevent the formation of traps and crevices. (j) Square sections formed from two L-shaped members require continuous welding to seal out the external environment. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 9 Impressed-current cathodic protection of a buried...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to zero, stopping any further transition. Even when exposed to temperature below 55 °F, a ‘seed’ is needed to initiate the tin pest process. Seeds that initiate it are said to range from particles of alpha tin (i.e., pested tin) to some solvents [ 2 ]. Several alloying elements are known to stop...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the epoxy resin encapsulant. The incompletely cured resin possesses imperfect macromolecular network, which is easily permeated by water molecules in the humidity in the atmosphere during storage in uncontrolled environment. The ester groups are hydrolyzed by humidity, and the polymers become softened...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the failure analyst. In collecting service histories, special attention should be given to environmental details such as normal and abnormal loading, accidental overloads, cyclic loads, temperature variations, temperature gradients, and operation in a corrosive environment. In most instances, however...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to the initiation of bacteria growth, and subsequent failure, can be avoided by the proper implementation of materials and corrosion engineering. The use of the wrong material for a given environment or a lack of proper water treatment can lead to catastrophic failures. The key in avoiding MIC-related problems...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Preventive Compounds-Solvent Cutback Cold Application, (1993) 7. Military Handbook 5F , Metallic Materials & Elements for Aerospace Vehicle structures, Vol.1 , pp 2 –31 to 2– 51 ( 1990 ) Selected References Selected References • Forms of Corrosion , Failure Analysis and Prevention...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of specimens. The intent was to provide a clean test surface without inducing any deformation which might affect detectability. Solvent-based visible dye penetrant was utilized. Microstructual Analysis In general, precipitates were observed in significantly varying distributions and morphologies. Both...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... bulk environment, although the short-crack fatigue data obtained in air do coincide with those for long cracks. The difference, therefore, is purely chemical in nature. The magnitude of the environmental enhancement of crack growth varies, depending on crack size and on applied stress. At a low stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ceramics: knowledge on how they are being used, the variables describing the environment in which they have to perform, and the minimization of the amount of variations or of the cyclic nature of the constraints help in avoiding premature failures. As a final consideration, corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... under various stress states and environments, helped investigators to trace the cause of failure. Control valves Liquid hydrogen Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI UNS R54521 Stress-corrosion cracking Fatigue fracture Introduction Description of the Failure Material and Processing Operating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., nonscratching brush Washing with organic solvents Use of an ultrasonic cleaning bath and appropriate solvents. The use of an ultrasonic cleaning bath is very useful in speeding up the cleaning process. Use of a mild acid or alkali, depending on the metal. A solution that attacks the deposits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at temperatures above ambient, creep is a definite consideration, and stresses must be kept to a level such that this is not an important consideration. Crazing can occur in high-impact plastics under the combined influence of stress and a hostile environment. In a hostile environment, such as an organic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the type, sequence, magnitude, and number of the fluctuating (multiaxial) stresses often in combination with complex environmental influences (temperature, corrosion, wear). These factors complicate the laboratory simulation of actual application conditions and often require full-sized component tests...