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Softening

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Failure occurred in two TOW flight missile cases in unrelated launchings. After an extensive investigation, it was concluded that stress corrosion was the most likely cause of failure. Subsequent to this conclusion, inner wall softening was observed in an unfired TOW flight missile...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 26 Bauschinger effect. The softening effect is exaggerated for clarity. σ F , forward stress; σ R , reverse stress; σ B , backward stress More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 22 Bauschinger effect. The softening effect is exaggerated for clarity. σ F , forward stress; σ R , reverse stress; σ B , backward stress More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 25 Thermomechanical analysis (TMA), Vicat softening temperatures, under 10.3 MPa (1.5 ksi). Source: Ref 26 More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 39 Schematic of measurement of softening temperature by thermomechanical analysis in the penetration mode. Source: Ref 7 More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 45 Softening and plastification of a cylindrical roller bearing due to gross overheating. Source: Ref 24 More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 12 Example of melted Pyrex glass. The softening temperature of type 7740 Pyrex is 820 °C (1510 °F), which is well into heat exposure zone VI. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with thermogravimetric analysis. Based on test data, the epoxy resin had not been properly cured and was hydrolyzed in its compromised state because of humidity. Hence, the depolymerized material gradually softened to the point where the effect of creep caused it to flow, ultimately causing the failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... the existence of a very hard spot in the steel prior to the explosion, which was softened significantly in the ensuing fire. This finding allowed the micromechanism leading to fracture to be identified as hydrogen embrittlement resulting from cathodic charging. Fracture mechanics Gas pipelines Fe-0.3C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0046505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... by a pivoted malleable iron latch. The latch and top surface of the clapper plate were usually in a sanitary-water environment (stabilized, chlorinated well water with a pH of 7.3) under stagnant conditions. Process make-up water that had been clarified, filtered, softened, and chlorinated and had a pH of 9.8...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0065827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... with superior properties was initiated. The nominal composition of Fe-0.50C-0.30Mn-0.40Si-5.00Cr-2.00Mo was developed which achieved the goals of edge retention, resistance to softening under frictional heating, wear resistance, ease of heat treatment, dimensional stability in heat treatment, grindability...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... for the location of failure. Fractography revealed multiple crack initiation sites to be located at other less noticeable wear sites or opposite the characteristic wear site. Microhardness testing revealed hardening, and some softening, at wear sites. Hoists Mining machinery Wire rope Steel wire rope...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... in the inner-ring raceway which had been softened by the elevated temperatures reached during the failure. Broken retainers and worn and bent out of shape seals were found. Penetration of gritty particles, water and other corrosive agents and leakage of lubricant out of the bearing permitted by the worn seals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... liquids, and stray electric currents. Most common modes of failure include flaking or pitting (fatigue), cracks or fractures, creep, smearing, wear, softening, indentation, fluting, and corrosion. The modes of failure are illustrated with examples from practice. Roller bearings Rolling-bearing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... that localized turbulence is obviated. Degassing and cleansing of the water also would reduce the danger of erosion particularly in the case of softened water, which takes up oxygen and carbon dioxide very readily thus becoming particularly aggressive. Corrosion products Hot water heating Pipe Soldered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... the rotating shaft came into direct contact with the flange. Mechanical friction caused a rise in temperature on both contact surfaces. This mutual contact lasted long enough for the temperature in the contact zone to exceed 1200 deg C, at which the flange material became softened or molten. As a result...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... problems. The temperature in much of the piston was high enough to cause softening by overaging, lowering strength. Automotive engines Overheating Pistons Softening 357 UNS A03570 Thermal fatigue fracture Mixed-mode fracture High-temperature corrosion and oxidation The sustained high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001846
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., and journal surface. The excessive heat also softened the induction-hardened case on the journal surface, decreasing its fatigue strength. Fatigue crack initiation occurred at the root fillet of the groove because of stress concentration. rotary shaft bearing sleeve fracture insufficient lubrication...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... a series of hidden repair welds on the inside surface of the plate in the vicinity of the fracture. Comparison of the microstructure in the area of the fracture with that in an area away from the weld indicated that the repair welding had resulted in the creation of an annealed, softened zone...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 46 Macroetched (10% aqueous nitric acid) face of a cutter blade made from AISI S7 steel. Macroetching reveals the influence of frictional heat from service (dark-etching areas) that produce localized back-tempering (softening). More