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Sodium sulfate

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... . In: Rapp R.A. (ed.) High Temperature Corrosion , San Diego , p. 389 ( 1981 ) 7. DeCrescente M.A. , Bornstein N.S. : Formation and reactivity thermodynamics of sodium sulfate with gas turbine alloys . Corrosion 24 , 127 ( 1968 ) 10.5006/0010-9312-24.5.127 8. Conde...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... tube and in the internal deposits of the stainless steel tube. The sodium probably formed sodium hydroxide with carryover moisture and caused the gouging, which was further aggravated by the presence of silicon and sulfur (silicates and sulfates). It was recommended that the tubes be replaced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... , 5 , 6 ingestion of sodium salts, which form a deposit of sodium sulfate over the bucket profile; the presence of an undetermined level of sulfur in the fuel; the presence of potassium sulfate or more complex mixtures of other salt sulfates and chlorides, including sodium sulfate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...: Ingestion of sodium salts, which formed sodium sulfate Sulfur in the fuel Presence of potassium sulfate, other sulfates, and chlorides Presence of salt in air, due to coastal location Stress analysis (finite-element modeling) on the shroud indicated that, due to the thinning by erosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... many others cracks on the internal surface which did not penetrate to the outside. Microscopical examination showed multiple intergranular, tree-like cracking typical of stress-corrosion cracking. Concentration of sodium hydroxide occurred in the bellows unit and the stress-corrosion cracking which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of chloride salts through the formation of sodium-aluminum silicates, which expel HCl and SO 3 ( Ref 33 ). Problems with chlorides are mitigated if plastics and other sources of halogens are removed or minimized from the waste stream. Increasing the oxygen content and adding water vapor have also reduced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 28 ). These contaminants combine in the gas phase to form alkali metal sulfates; if the temperature of the alloy is below the dewpoint of the alkali sulfate vapors and above the sulfate melting points, molten sulfate deposits are formed ( Ref 28 ). Molten sodium sulfate is the principal agent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... were reported. The leaks showed no correlation to the type of process liquor (for example, dodecylbenzene sulfonate, fatty acids, synthetic and natural fatty alcohols, triethanolamine, sodium silicate, sodium carbonate, and others). All stainless steel pipelines and many vessels and tanks were affected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Fluorescence Analysis Element Weight (%) Calcium 0.4 Chloride 0.4 Copper 69. Iron 0.4 Lead 0.2 Magnesium <0.1 Sodium <0.1 Sulfur 0.8 Tin 0.3 Zinc 0.1 Based on the testing and evaluation of the copper pipes from the subdivision, it was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... and water, which sustains the reactions, and leads to the formation of sodium sulfate, sodium dioxide, and sulfur through the reaction given in Eq. 3 . (Eq 1) 2 N a 2 S 2 O 4 + H 2 O → 2 N a H S O 3 + N a 2 S 2 O 3 (Eq 2) 2 N a H S O...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... contained 2.10% Cr and 1.10% Mo, both of which were within specified limits. The white deposit was identified as sodium-potassium sulfate [(Na,K)SO 4 ], containing about 3% alkali acid sulfate [(Na,K)HSO 4 ]. The red deposit was found to be mainly Fe 2 O 3 plus about 5% SiO 2 , 2% Al 2 O 3 , and 0.5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... (caustic) environment. Environmental impurities consisting of sulfate, sulfide, sodium, lead, and copper were also detected. The levels of these impurities were not sufficient to indicate an acute introduction of these species into the steam generator secondary environment. However, crack oxide analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Circumstances Leading to Failure To increase production of a dye intermediate, a 3800 L (1000 gal) lead-lined tank, equipped with copper coils, was replaced with two 75,700 L (20,000 gal) tanks. The process involved acidification of an aromatic organic sodium salt with sulfuric acid at 80°C (175°F) to pH...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and oxygen, indicative of organic compounds. Coolant 1 was found to contain small amounts of sulfur and phosphorus along with carbon and oxygen. Coolant 2 contained relatively small levels of aluminum, sodium, sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine, along with high carbon and oxygen. The detergent was primarily...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with a sodium hypochlorite solution. It was determined that the assemblies failed due to an austenite-martensite galvanic couple activated by a chlorine bearing electrolyte. The martensitic areas resulted from a transformation during cold-forming operations. Solution annealing after forming, revision...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the processing of nuclear materials are kept in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The wastes consist primarily of concentrated solutions of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. Each of the tanks is equipped with a purge ventilation system designed to continuously remove hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... small concentrations of alkali (sodium, potassium) and alkaline earth metals (calicium magnesium), as well as chlorine and sulfur. These elements were apparently derived from the limestone and dolomite. The features of the corrosion morphology were consistent with alkali-sulfate-induced hot corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... museum facility. Table 1 Water quality test results from museum facility. Property Cold Water Hot Water Alkalinity (ppm) 79 33 Bicarbonate (ppm) 79 33 Sodium (ppm) 70 20 Chloride (ppm) 13 16 Sulfate (ppm) 16 12 Iron (ppm) 0.4 1.2 Total Hardness (ppm) 25 30...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-corrosion crack from dished end 2 (in storage). Fractographs of crack faces from dished end 1 (in service) showed similar IGSCC, but the surfaces were smeared with sodium oxide. The test consists of exposing rectangular strips of the material to boiling and acidified (added sulfuric acid) copper sulfate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 OD ID ID ID Calcium 11. 0.06 0.6 0.4 Copper 53. 62. 60. 62. Iron 1. 0.8 2. 1. Magnesium 0.5 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 Manganese — — 0.02 — Silicon 2. 1. 3. 8. Sodium 0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 Sulfur 2. 1. 5. — Tin...