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Sodium hydroxide, environment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Sodium hydroxide, environment UNS S31600 316 ASME SA106 B Stress-corrosion cracking Background Applications The superheater tube U-bends were part of a waste heat boiler system that produced steam at 2.07 MPa (300 psi) and 274 °C (525 °F). The steam was used in various processes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... recommended. Weld repair was chosen, and the rotor was returned to service; it has performed for more than 1 year without further incident. Compressors Sodium hydroxide, environment Steam turbines ASTM A470 grade 4 UNS K22878 Stress-corrosion cracking Intergranular corrosion Background...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... metallurgical approach to failure analysis to confirm that the cracking was caused by a caustic stress-corrosion cracking mechanism is presented. Caustic cracking Chemical processing equipment Compressor blades Sodium hydroxide, environment 4320 UNS G43200 Stress-corrosion cracking Background...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... which developed was of the form known as caustic cracking. It was recommended that water for de-superheater use should be taken after the deaerator and prior to the addition of salts which may deposit or concentrate in the desuperheater. Bellows Corrosion environments Leakage Sodium hydroxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... magnitude, were responsible. As all other welds were suspect, the remedy was to remove the joints and to reweld followed by local stress relief. Butt welds Caustic soda Corrosion environments Pipes Residual stress Sodium hydroxide Stress relieving Welded steel Intergranular fracture Stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract High-level radioactive wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials are kept in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The wastes consist primarily of concentrated solutions of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. Each of the tanks is equipped...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... hydroxide with metal to produce distinct hemispherical or elliptical pits or depressions. The susceptibility of steel to caustic attack is based on the amphoteric nature of iron oxides. The oxides of iron are corroded in both low-pH and high-pH environments. At high-pH, the magnetite is dissolved in sodium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the absence of the other” ( Ref 5 ). Their research showed that caustic embrittlement of steel plates used in boilers was the result of the carbon steel boiler plate (a susceptible metal/alloy), the presence of sodium hydroxide (a specific environment) that formed in boiler water from sodium bicarbonate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the blocked section creates large axial loads on the thrust bearing and can result in bearing failure. Major corrosive deposits found on turbine blades include [ 13 ]: sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid, sodium silicate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, ammonium chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the threshold stress intensity. (b) Effect of stress intensity on the growth rate of stress corrosion cracks in type 304L stainless steel exposed to magnesium chloride and sodium chloride solutions Mechanisms of SCC A number of mechanisms have been proposed to account for the subcritical crack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in causing hot corrosion ( Ref 29 , 30 ). Chloride salts can act as a fluxing agent and dissolve protective oxide films. Air in a marine environment ingested into the combustion zone of any marine gas turbine engine is laden with chlorides, unless properly filtered. Sodium chloride has been viewed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Fluorescence Analysis Element Weight (%) Calcium 0.4 Chloride 0.4 Copper 69. Iron 0.4 Lead 0.2 Magnesium <0.1 Sodium <0.1 Sulfur 0.8 Tin 0.3 Zinc 0.1 Based on the testing and evaluation of the copper pipes from the subdivision, it was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... on the various portions of the impeller gave the following results: Samples of the heavier deposit from the back plate and vanes were removed for analysis with the following results: The sulphate content is equivalent to 2.51%FeS and an iodine/sodium azide test showed strong indications of the presence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., sodium hydroxide. This had dissolved the normally protective magnetite scale leading to local corrosion and ultimately to the formation of pits and channels on the bore of the tube, a phenomenon to which the term “caustic grooving” has been applied. An alternative suggestion which has been put forward...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... was removed and its organic components were dissolved. The remaining matter was determined to be primarily sodium hydroxide with a chloride level of only 100 to 150 ppm. Metallographic comparisons revealed that crack morphology was similar to that shown in Fig. 2 , left, and to that developed during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... by hydrogen in this temperature range, and laboratory tests with 2-14% Cr steel verified this. Boiler tubes Corrosion environments Sodium hydroxide Warships Fe-0.13C Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Introduction Except to those directly concerned with the service failure, a report...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...–1155 40.0–42.5 Advanced ultra-supercritical >30 >4.4 >700 >1290 42.5–47.0 Increase in plant efficiency through improved Rankine cycle not only results in lower coal consumption but also in reduced emissions of CO 2 and environmentally nonfriendly gases such as NO x , SO...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., or other sites where water flow is disrupted ( Ref 38 ). Caustic gouging results from deposition of feedwater corrosion products, in which sodium hydroxide can concentrate to high pH levels ( Ref 39 ). The hydroxide solubilizes the protective magnetite layer and reacts directly with the iron: (Eq 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... on the base plate surface of impeller 1 were analyzed in situ using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), which can normally detect elements of atomic number 13 (aluminum) and above at concentrations as low as 0.3 to 0.5 wt%, whereas fluorine, sodium, and magnesium are detectable at somewhat higher...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... environments (see the article “Stress-Corrosion Cracking” in this Volume). In heat exchangers, these environments may be present at such low concentrations that they appear to be harmless. However, concentration of cracking species by evaporation can lead to equipment failure. For example, sodium hydroxide...