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Sodium hydroxide, environment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... aggravated by the presence of silicon and sulfur (silicates and sulfates). It was recommended that the tubes be replaced with Inconel 600 or 601, as a practical option until the carryover problem could be solved. Alkalies, environment Boiler tubes Environmental effects Inconel 600, 601 Sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract High-level radioactive wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials are kept in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The wastes consist primarily of concentrated solutions of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. Each of the tanks is equipped with a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... yield point magnitude, were responsible. As all other welds were suspect, the remedy was to remove the joints and to reweld followed by local stress relief. Butt welds Caustic soda Corrosion environments Pipes Residual stress Sodium hydroxide Stress relieving Welded steel Intergranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... developed was of the form known as caustic cracking. It was recommended that water for de-superheater use should be taken after the deaerator and prior to the addition of salts which may deposit or concentrate in the desuperheater. Bellows Corrosion environments Leakage Sodium hydroxide Sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... this temperature range, and laboratory tests with 2-14% Cr steel verified this. Boiler tubes Corrosion environments Sodium hydroxide Warships Fe-0.13C Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Selected References • French D.N. , Failures of Boilers and Related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... repair was chosen, and the rotor was returned to service; it has performed for more than 1 year without further incident. Compressors Sodium hydroxide, environment Steam turbines ASTM A470 grade 4 UNS K22878 Stress-corrosion cracking Intergranular corrosion Selected Reference...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... introduced in service in various ways are a major contributing factor. Of major concern in connection with failure by mechanical-environmental processes is the combined effect of stress raisers and environment. Stress concentrations are frequently introduced in service by damage from accidental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., or other sites where water flow is disrupted ( Ref 38 ). Caustic gouging results from deposition of feedwater corrosion products, in which sodium hydroxide can concentrate to high pH levels ( Ref 39 ). The hydroxide solubilizes the protective magnetite layer and reacts directly with the iron: (Eq 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Chloride 0.4 Copper 69. Iron 0.4 Lead 0.2 Magnesium <0.1 Sodium <0.1 Sulfur 0.8 Tin 0.3 Zinc 0.1 Based on the testing and evaluation of the copper pipes from the subdivision, it was concluded that pitting corrosion was a result of the corrosive waters supplied...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion ( Ref 29 , 30 ). Chloride salts can act as a fluxing agent and dissolve protective oxide films. Air in a marine environment ingested into the combustion zone of any marine gas turbine engine is laden with chlorides, unless properly filtered. Sodium chloride has been viewed as an aggressive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... equipment failure. For example, sodium hydroxide may be present in boiler water in part per million concentrations. Waste-heat boilers can allow concentration of hydroxide ions by steam blanketing, by incomplete water wetting of a vertical boiler, or by flange leaks that allow water to become steam. Failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... corrosion control corrosion prevention corrosion testing corrosion-related failures environmental-related failures metals nonmetals CORROSION is the deterioration of a material by a reaction of that material with its environment. A study by NACE International in 2016 examined nine world economic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cathodic reaction is: (Eq 15) O 2 + 2 H 2 O + 4 e → 4 OH − Remembering that sodium and chloride ions do not participate in the reaction, the overall reaction can be obtained by adding Eq 9 and 12 : (Eq 16) 2 Fe + 2 H 2 O + O 2 → 2 Fe 2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... prepare a valid galvanic series for a given materials and environment of interest, all the factors affecting the potential must be addressed. This includes material composition, heat treatment, surface preparation (mill scale, coatings surface finish, etc.), environmental composition (trace contaminants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... air, lead in sulfate-containing environments, and stainless steel in humid air creating passive films. In general terms, uniform corrosion can be classified further according to the specific conditions of environmental or electrochemical attack. For example, uniform thinning can be attributed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... approach to failure analysis to confirm that the cracking was caused by a caustic stress-corrosion cracking mechanism is presented. Caustic cracking Chemical processing equipment Compressor blades Sodium hydroxide, environment 4320 UNS G43200 Stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... distinct hemispherical or elliptical pits or depressions. The susceptibility of steel to caustic attack is based on the amphoteric nature of iron oxides. The oxides of iron are corroded in both low-pH and high-pH environments. At high-pH, the magnetite is dissolved in sodium hydroxide: (Eq 1) 4 NaOH...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... differential across the blocked section creates large axial loads on the thrust bearing and can result in bearing failure. Major corrosive deposits found on turbine blades include [ 13 ]: sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid, sodium silicate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, ammonium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... research showed that caustic embrittlement of steel plates used in boilers was the result of the carbon steel boiler plate (a susceptible metal/alloy), the presence of sodium hydroxide (a specific environment) that formed in boiler water from sodium bicarbonate, and residual tensile stresses associated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... VPN Steel type C 0.21%, Mn. 0.47%, Ni. 4.80% Samples of the heavier deposit from the back plate and vanes were removed for analysis with the following results: Nitrate (NO 3 ) 4.72% Sulphate SO 4 ) 2.76% Chloride (Cl) 0.15% Calcium (Ca) 0.25% Sodium (Na) 0.9...