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Shrinkage

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... through the defect indicated shrinkage porosity. This defect was found to interconnect the water jacket and the exhaust gas flow chamber. No cracks were found by magnetic-particle inspection. The gray iron cylinder head had a hardness of 229 HRB on the surface of the bottom deck. The microstructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0089530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... steel conforming to ASTM A 148, grade 150-125. The crack was found to have originated along the lower surface initially penetrating a region of shrinkage porosity. It was observed that cracking then propagated in tension through sound metal and terminated in a shear lip at the top of the eye...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... by metallographic examination to be case carburized. The case was found to be martensite with small spheroidal carbides while the core consisted of martensite plus some ferrite. The fracture was revealed to be related to shrinkage porosity. Tempering was revealed to be probably limited to about 150 deg C...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 60 Dendritic shrinkage porosity in aluminum alloy A356. Shrinkage porosity is a common imperfection in cast components and also a common location for fracture initiation. (a) Fracture surface from a fatigue specimen. 30×. (b) Same specimen as in part (a) but at lower magnification (13 More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 Micro-shrinkage cavity with carbon segregation (ledeburite). Etched in picral. 50 × More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Valve-spring failure due to residual shrinkage pipe. (a) Macrograph showing fracture, as indicated by arrow. (b) Fracture surface; pipe is indicated by arrow. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Scanning electron micrograph of shrinkage porosity in a steel weld More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Detail of shrinkage porosity in steel weldment. Note that the secondary dendrite arms are spaced at 90° in this cubic crystal structure material, unlike snowflakes formed from water, which prefer a hexagonal crystal habit. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 SEM photograph of the peeled off nugget surface showing shrinkage porosity, insufficient melting and penetration, and gas evolution (which could be due to presence of moisture, oil, etc. at the interface) at the interface More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 9 Microstructure of the weld showing (a) shrinkage porosity in the nugget, (b) intergranular cracks emanating from the fusion zone, W1 More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Section from a failed cylinder-head exhaust port. The shrinkage porosity allowed engine coolant to leak into the exhaust port. Not polished, not etched. 0.9× More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 Dendritic structure in a primary shrinkage cavity. 16×. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Porous zone under a fracture edge of impeller I (shrinkage zone in Fig. 5 ). 20 × More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Graphite structure in the areas of the shrinkage condition. An estimated 90% is ASTM types I and II, with 150 nodules/mm 2 . As-polished. 54× More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Graphite structure in the areas of the shrinkage condition. An estimated 90% is ASTM types I and II, with 150 nodules/mm 2 . As-polished. 54× More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Wire-stretching jaws that broke because of shrinkage porosity and low ductility of case and core. The jaws, sand cast from low-alloy steel, were used to stretch wire for prestressed concrete beams. (a) Two pairs of movable jaws. 0.7×. (b) Two pairs of stationary jaws. 0.7×. (c) and (d More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 About half of the broken parts had this dendritic appearance. Shrinkage porosity was found to be the primary cause of failure. More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 3 Shrinkage pit and void found in the pump’s body More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Shrinkage porosity at bolt-hole bosses in a ductile-iron cylinder head More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 Wire-stretching jaws that broke because of shrinkage porosity and low ductility of case and core. The jaws, sand cast from low-alloy steel, were used to stretch wire for prestressed concrete beams. (a) Two pairs of movable jaws. 0.7×. (b) Two pairs of stationary jaws. 0.7×. (c) and (d More