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Sensitization

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... containing more than 0.03% carbon had been sensitized and placed in contact in service with a corrosive medium at temperatures in the sensitizing range. Recommendations included changing material for the pot from type 304 stainless steel to Hastelloy N (70Ni-17Mo-7Cr-5Fe). Maximum corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... cool. Electric power generation Sensitization Steam Valve stem 17-4 PH UNS S17400 Stress-corrosion cracking Heat treating-related failures A 9 cm (3.5 in.) diameter valve stem made of 17-4 PH (AISI type 630) stainless steel, which was used for operating a 61 cm (24 in.) gate valve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...-appearing surfaces confined to the HAZs of the welds. Microscopic examination of sections transverse to the weld cracks showed severe intergranular corrosion in the HAZ. The fractures appeared to be caused by loss of corrosion resistance due to sensitization, that could have been induced by the temperatures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... not to be in compliance with standards (type 304 stainless steel without molybdenum). The screws and washers were found to be made of remelted implant-quality type 316L stainless steel and were intact. Signs of sensitization, characterized by chromium carbide precipitates at the grain boundaries, were revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... continued exposure of the rods to severe cyclic loads in service. The loads on the rods developed tensile and bending stresses in the connecting ends. Contributory factors were: The presence of a notch-sensitive banded structure containing alternately soft (ferrite) and hard (pearlite) layers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... etched with oxalic acid) supported the conclusion that the clamp fractured by SCC because the work metal was sensitized. Sensitization occurred during long-term exposure to the service temperature; the effects of sensitization were intensified as a result of cold forming. Recommendations included using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that the fracture was caused by intergranular corrosion/stress-corrosion cracks that initiated from the external surface of the pipe reducer section. Contributory factors were the sensitized condition of the flange and the concentration of corrosive elements from the bleach stock plant environment on the external...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... a second vessel that was kept in storage for 1 year Clear evidence of sensitization was found in areas where IGSCC occurred. Sensitization was extensive in the dished end that had been exposed to sodium at high temperature, and it occurred in a narrow band similar to that typical of weld decay...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was equivalent to a 30% reduction in thickness. Residual stresses were measured at about 135 MPa (20 ksi). The HAZ was found to be sensitized. The tanks had been stored in a coastal atmosphere for about 4 years before installation. The failure was attributed to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... metal indicated severe sensitization in the HAZ due to high heat input during welding. An intergranular corrosion test confirmed the observations. The severe sensitization was coupled with residual stresses and exposure of the assembly to a coastal atmosphere during storage prior to installation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... failures had occurred in links having hardness values in the range of 375 to 444 HRB. It was revealed by the supplier that the previous hardness level of 302 to 375 HRB was increased to minimize wear which made the links were made notch sensitive and resulted in fractures that initiated at the butt-weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... revealed that one of the components was in a highly sensitized condition and that the pickling and passivation had resulted in severe intergranular corrosion. The other component was fabricated from thick plate and, after machining, the outer surface represented the transverse section of the original plate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the welds in a highly sensitized state. The sensitized material lost corrosion resistance, became embrittled along the grain boundaries, and finally failed by intergranular cracking. Use of type 410 martensitic stainless steel was recommended. Embrittlement Heat-affected zone Sensitizing Vanes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... couples formed between precipitates and the alloy matrix, leading to severe intergranular attack. No recommendations were made. Marine environments Sensitization Ship hulls 5083 UNS A95083 Intergranular corrosion The 5 xxx series of aluminum alloys are often selected for weldability...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... was at such a distance from the weld that the heat of welding could have raised the metal temperature to 550 to 700 deg C (1292 deg F). The corrosion of the shell material which occurred at the shell side of the weld under the backing ring is also an example of crevice corrosion. Leakage Sensitization Storage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the weld. Metallographic examination showed that cracking was intergranular and that adjacent grain boundaries had undergone deep intergranular attack. Examination at higher magnification revealed heavy carbide precipitation, primarily at grain boundaries, indicating that the alloy had been sensitized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... changes in the cleaning and welding process. Nozzles Sensitization Wastewater vaporizers Welded joints E-Brite UNS S44627 Joining-related failures Intergranular corrosion A nozzle in a wastewater vaporizer began leaking after approximately three years of service with acetic and formic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was the most likely cause of failure. 439 Intergranular stress corrosion Postweld heat treatment Sensitization 430 UNS S43000 Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking Heat-Recovery Steam Generator Design Ferritic Stainless Steel Feedwater Economizer Design and Fabrication...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay coatings, thermal barrier coatings, and ceramic coatings. References References 1. Fontana M.G. , Corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a single 2.8 m sleeve. The findings from the investigation indicated that internal oxidation corrosion, driven by high temperatures, was the primary cause of failure. Prolonged exposure to temperatures up to 760 °C resulted in sensitization of the material, making it vulnerable to grain boundary attack...