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Seawater environment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... It was determined that the tube failed from crevice corrosion under seawater deposits that had formed on the inner surface. Mechanical cleaning of the condenser tubes every 6 months and installation of intake screens of smaller mesh size were recommended. Aluminum bronzes Nuclear reactor components Seawater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... intensity thresholds for environmentally assisted cracking. Al-Si bronze was found to be susceptible to subcritical intergranular cracking in air and seawater, whereas Ni-Al bronze was unaffected. Both materials, however, are susceptible to cracking in the presence of ammonia, although the subcritical crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... in both seawater and air environments. Cracks initiated at an unusually wide variety of sites and propagated in either longitudinal or circumferential directions with respect to the axis of the couplings. Fracture surfaces were intergranular and exhibited little or no sign of corrosion (for couplings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... with a higher copper content and at least the same yield strength. Steps to exclude seawater and any possible source of ammonia from the bolt shank were also suggested. Marine environments Aluminum bronze Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking Background Visual Examination of General...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...Abstract Abstract The failure of a 90-10 cupronickel heat exchanger tube resulted in flooding of the vessel and subsequently sinking it. The corrosion of the cupronickel alloy was facilitated by the high sulfur content of the seawater in which it operated. The failure modes were anodic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in some environments, and so exposure time is important, too. With certain exceptions, the galvanic series in seawater is broadly applicable in other natural waters and in uncontaminated atmospheres. Bodily fluids are similar to saltwater, so as a first approximation the galvanic series is useful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., galvanic series based on seawater or other standard electrolytes are worthwhile for initial materials selection for multiple metal/alloy systems in a given environment. A properly prepared galvanic series is easy to use and can answer simple galvanic-corrosion questions regarding the positions and relative...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... in the HAZ at the weld joints. Some pitting was found midlength at the bottom of the pipe. Environment: Stagnant seawater at ambient temperatures. Pipe was in service for four weeks when three leaks appeared. Figure 1 shows a pit near the end of a ballpoint pen lying in the trough of a sectioned...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... temperatures of 66 to 180 deg C (150 to 350 deg F), an alloy such as 5083 can become susceptible to intergranular corrosion. Investigation (visual inspection, corrosion testing, SEM images) supported the conclusion that the cracks occurred because during exposures to chloride solutions like seawater, galvanic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of composition and microstructure on the seawater corrosion resistance of nickel–aluminum bronze . Paper No.03262, NACE Corrosion/2003, NACE International , Houston, Texas 10.3168/jds.2019-16489 2. Ferrara R.J. , Caton T.E. , Review of dealloying of cast aluminum bronze and nickel–aluminum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0047917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... that the failure was caused by fatigue initiated in corrosion pits (caused by seawater). The fracture was found to be transgranular. It was recommended that the inner and outer rings should both be made from the more corrosion resistant 17-4 PH (AISI type 630) stainless steel. Cyclic load Hydrofoils Stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... by metallographic and fractographic examinations. Simulations were also performed on stressed material in a suitable environment to assess the relative importance of postulated failure mechanisms. Factors contributing to this failure including assembly procedures and applied preloads, service loading...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A reversible four-way carbon steel flap valve in a thermal power station failed after 7 years of service. The flap had been fabricated by welding two carbon steel plates to both sides of a carbon steel forging. The valve was used for reversing the flow direction of seawater...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... environment and a cyclic stress, which results in premature failure of metals by cracking. Neither cyclic stress in air nor environmental attack applied separately produces the same damaging results as combined action. Thus, a precorroded specimen does not necessarily show appreciable reduction in fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is the combined action of an aggressive environment and a cyclic stress, which results in premature failure of metals by cracking. Neither cyclic stress in air nor environmental attack applied separately produces the same damaging results as combined action. Thus, a precorroded specimen does not necessarily show...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by other microorganisms in the community enables a very corrosive anaerobic, low-pH, chloride-rich environment to develop on the steel surface. Fig. 8 Increase in corrosion rate for steel treated with a corrosion inhibitor in carbon-dioxide-saturated 3% saline solution with addition of acetate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... patina will appear as a natural effect, perhaps merging with the environment. Sometimes this works, depending on the skill of the architect.) With longer exposure the patina changes in color for the reasons given above. Examples are shown in Fig. 3(a-b) . When looking at these photographs, it should...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the categories of corrosion, fracture, and distortion. In practice, both mechanisms are likely only to be considered under the corrosion category. For example, the failure analyst may see the buckled surface of a collapsed structural component exposed to a seawater environment. The Sherlock Holmes rule says...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to be considered under the corrosion category. For example, the failure analyst may see the buckled surface of a collapsed structural component exposed to a seawater environment. The Sherlock Holmes Rule says general corrosion is still a possible primary failure mechanism. In this scenario, corrosion causes wall...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... of moisture containing a fairly high concentration of chlorides (seawater typically contains about 19,000 ppm of dissolved chlorides) and traces of ammonia. Recommendations included redesign of the slots, shot-blasting the formed retainers, and changing the material to a different type of silicon bronze...