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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... subjected to sinusoidal load fluctuations at 6.7 Hz in air, 3% NaCl solution, and natural sea water are described. Reinforcement types studied included: hot-rolled mild steel bar, hot-rolled alloyed high strength bar, cold-worked high strength bar, galvanized bar of all these three types, nickel-clad bar...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... to contain sulfur, mainly from the flue gas, and calcium and chlorine, mainly from the sea water. The gray corrosion product was interspersed with rust and a black carbonaceous deposit. Corrosion pitting and poor weld penetration, with carbide precipitation and heavy etching at grain boundaries, indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... as, for example, sea water, systems which cannot, for practical reasons, be subjected to heat-treatments. To prevent the occurrence of this phenomenon, the literature suggests a number of methods available for producing austenitic stainless steels, which can be stabilized against intercrystalline corrosion 7...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... be determined employing the “leak-before-break” design philosophy, developed using fracture mechanics, to eliminate the possibility of catastrophic ruptures. Gas cylinders Sea water Al-5Mg Mixed-mode fracture Stress-corrosion cracking Introduction Failure Analysis Characterization of Cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... 900°C. The general appearance of the failed coupling is shown in Fig. 1 . The fracture surface was heavily corroded due to its exposure to sea water but nevertheless the directions of crack propagation could be determined from the orientation of the clearly defined chevron markings. These chevron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... Electrochem. , Vol. 127 , pp. 1897 – 1903 ( September 1980 ). 10.1149/1.2130032 7. Dhar H. P. et al. , “Corrosion Behavior of 70-30 Ni Alloy in 0.5 M NaCl and in Synthetic Sea Water,” Corrosion , Vol. 41 , pp. 193 – 196 ( April 1985 ). 10.5006/1.3581990 8. Mukhopadhyay N...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... very superior results. As a point of reference, it should be noted that the sea water temperature at the time of the collision was −2 °C (29 °F). The impact energy for the RMS Titanic steel at this temperature was 4 joules (3 ft-lbs.) in both the longitudinal and the transverse directions. The ductile...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... found accumulated inside the cracks (see whitish products in the cracks in Fig. 1c ). Also tank was water cooled using tap water which promoted the condensation and accumulation of salt water “spray” on the tank surface. It is well known that sea water contains various forms of chlorides (such as NaCl...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... brought into contact with sea-water or brine or alternatively, they may have been introduced by the use of killed-spirits, sal-ammoniac, or other type of chloride-containing flux. The fact that the majority of the fractures occurred adjacent to the clips suggested that a flux of this nature may have been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with chlorides (probably coming from the sea water) as well as the presence of salts on the tube walls were observed. The lifetime of this tube was only 50 h (until rupture). Three samples were cut from sections from sections of the tube of the lateral wall of a boiler of an aircraft carrier flat top boat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... treatment was performed. The oxide may have formed during tempering if the line defect is a quench crack or it may have formed during exposure in the sea water. A scanning electron micrograph near the crack tip at this defect is shown in Figure 3 . In this micrograph, the crack which originated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... bronze alloys in sea water service . Mater. Perform. 21 ( 2 ), 30 – 34 ( 1982 ) 3. ASTM B148–97: Standard Specification for Aluminum-Bronze Castings . ASTM International , West Conshohocken, PA (Reapproved 2003 ) Selected references Selected references • Ali S. , Heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Heaters (tube) Sea water Welded joints ASTM A285 grade C UNS K02801 (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture The brine-heater shell ( Fig. 1 ) in a seawater-conversion plant failed by bursting along a welded joint connecting the hot well to the heater shell. Failure occurred approximately 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... dezincification of Naval brass when immersed in sea water to be about 20 µm per year. Taking the life of the tug, 55 years, as the operating life of the valve, this predicts a corrosion depth of about 1000 µm. Considering the lack of knowledge of the operating life and the corrosion environment of the valve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... also advised. Heat affected zone Piping Pitting Sea water 316L 316 UNS S31600 Pitting corrosion Stagnant seawater can be quite destructive to some alloy systems. An austenitic stainless steel piping used in the fire-sprinkler system in a large saltwater passenger and car ferry failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... (a) were carried on a ship which caught fire off Singapore. The fire was fought with seawater, and by the time the plates were removed there was very visible corrosion (see far right) and a claim was made for 80% damage allowance. It was determined that despite the long contact with sea water, the steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... in boilers, and (b) why we can get away with cathodic protection of mild steel in sea water and wet soil for years without causing embrittlement. The actual caustic cracking as illustrated by micrographs in the literature looks very much indeed like the incipient stages of the sort of cracking observed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... This involves subjecting the sample while at a constant potential, which is selected on an empirical basis for each alloy, to a 3% sodium chloride solution for 6 – 16 hours. Results indicated that the test was fairly reliable. Attention is also directed to the Sea Water Acetic Acid Test (SWAAT) developed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... as a CaCl 2 accelerator or through the use of sea water in the concrete mix. The level is consistent, however, with the use of salt-contaminated beach sand in the concrete mix. For example, the use of beach sand with 0.1% NaCl contamination would result in approximately 0.4 kg/m 3 (0.7 lb/yd 3 ) chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... For example, polymers used in marine applications get exposed to sea water, and a machine component such as gear or brake pad may come in direct contact with leaking oil or water. For elastomers, their applications in seal rings and automobile tires regularly expose the material to lubricants, chemicals...