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Scale (corrosion)

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 10 Heavy Corrosion Scale on a Dome Interior Surface. More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 11 Severe Pitting of the Dome Revealed Upon Removal of the Corrosion Scale. More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 14 Feature of this corrosion was that the mill scale had lifted on all surfaces, irrespective of orientation More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... by careful examination. A hard material (mill scale) was assumed to have been impressed during drawing of the wire and was broken out during peening, leaving the depressions with sharp-bottomed corners. Spring was concluded to have failed due to a surface defect. Scale (corrosion) Wire drawing Spring...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Copper Overheating Scale (corrosion) Steel tube Liquid metal induced embrittlement One tube in a watertube boiler developed leakage from a perforation and the external surface was covered with a dark deposit indicative of local fusion. A section showed that perforation resulted from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... heating Scale (corrosion) Voids 80Ni-20Cr High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Heating elements, consisting of strips, 40 mm × 2 mm, of the widely used resistance heating alloy with 80% Ni and 20% Cr, and designed to withstand a temperature of 1175°C, were rendered unusable by scaling after...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to find the circuits with the greatest accumulation of debris and replacing them as necessary was recommended on an annual basis. Exfoliation Scale (corrosion) 1.25Cr-0.5Mo ASME SA213-T11 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Creep fracture/stress rupture This particular pendant-style...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., the material being drawn out to a feather edge at the time of rupture. Other ruptures in the same and other tubes were of a more brittle type, this being associated with penetration of material by molten copper derived from scale. Boiler tubes Copper Scale (corrosion) Steel tube Mixed-mode fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... overheating at the same location. Recommendations included replacing all tubes using a low sulfur refractory cement in installation and controlling burner positioning and regulation more closely to avoid excessive heat input at the hearth level. Heat treating furnaces Overheating Scale (corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... type 309 stainless steel support part showing heavy scale and internal attack. 81.3×. Corrosion Morphology As can be seen in Fig. 4 , the type 309 stainless steel plates underwent accelerated internal oxidation. Such severe oxidation was probably triggered by the formation of molten FeCl 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... The failure of T12 reheater tubes that had been in service for only 3000 h was investigated. The thickness of the tubes was visibly reduced by heavy oxidation corrosion on the inner and outer walls. The original pearlite substrate completely decomposed. Uniform oxide scale observed on the inner wall showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., as anticipated, due to deposition and direct contact of the ID metal surface with flue gases. The scale on the ID of the tube was loose and nonadherent, indicating deep penetration of the corrosion front into the base metal. However, the scale on the OD of the tube was adherent to the base metal in most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as identified by OES 0.206 0.139 0.544 0.029 0.012 Composition of corrosion product Table 3 Composition of corrosion product S. No. Parameters, % Sample location Inner scale Outer scale sample opposite punch Outer scale sample near punch 1 Mn 0.3 0.2 0.3 2 Ni 0.3 0.3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to the furnace was increased to accommodate the calcination and subsequent reactions of the limestone and dolomite. Coincident with this change in processing, corrosion of the grate bars began to occur. Almost all of the grate bars exhibited enhanced oxidation scaling and reduction in cross-sectional area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Corrosion fatigue The object under examination was a broken exhaust valve with disk diameter 30 mm and stem diameter about 8 mm from the cylinder of a motor car. The site of the fracture is directly where the valve cone joins the cylindrical stem. Both the cone and the stem are heavily scaled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of a protective oxide scale for corrosion protection. When hydrogen sulfide is present, it interferes with the formation of such a layer, forming a sulfide layer instead. Unlike the oxide layer, the sulfide scale is not protective, and it allows corrosion, as well as diffusion and concentration of such corrosive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... The tee joint in the piping between the heat exchanger and the sieve bed failed after 12 months. A hole in the tee fitting and a corrosion product on the inner surface of the pitting was revealed by visual examination. Iron sulfide was revealed by chemical analysis of the scale which indicated hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... a stress-corrosion reaction. Second, the effect of the oxide was magnified during thermal cycles because of differential thermal expansion, with the steel having a greater expansion coefficient than the scale. The high density of inclusions was assumed to be the result of improper cropping of the ingot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... the purchasing specifications and observations and photographs taken during surveys enroute. A frequent conclusion of such investigations is that the alleged corrosion is of no significance or did not occur during the voyage. Mill scale Rusting Storage Hot-rolled steel Uniform corrosion Hot Rolled...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 Pipe Storage: The use of end caps on these pipes did not go well with outdoor exposure. Any water entering could not escape, resulting in a humid atmosphere inside, with upper pipe temperatures reaching 100 °C in the sun. This resulted in the loss of mill scale and corrosion over More