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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
.... The findings suggested salt or salt water had leaked into the sensor and caused localized corrosion to the wire, possibly at an area where preexisting damage was present in the coating. Separation occurred in the wire when the current density at the reduced cross section caused excessive localized heating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of penetration was consistent with dezincification rates reported in the literature for such brasses in salt water if the valve had been in service about 55 years. Dezincification Marine environments Tug boats Valve seats Alpha brass Alpha-beta brass Dealloying/selective leaching Introduction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... locations as a result of the intrusion of water and salt, and the consequent heavy corrosion of the joint. The seizure of these joints led to high edgewise bending stress in the bars as the bridge underwent thermal movement. The cracking was enhanced by the presence of the corrosive medium so...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the formation of protective oxide films was recommended. Condenser tubes Salt water Sulfurization Aluminum brass Pitting corrosion A tube sample from an aluminum brass seawater surface condenser was received for analysis. This condenser had failed due to pitting after less than 1 year of service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0006897
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... the tail wire material for direct seashore exposure from annealed copper to annealed Monel. Abrasion Clamps, Materials substitution Salt water environment Copper wire Corrosion fatigue The small cable (drop wire) providing service for individual subscribers from the aerial plant is held...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... damage was typical of alkaline corrosion and confirmed that the boiler tubes failed as a result of steam blanketing that concentrated phosphate salts. The severe alkaline conditions developed most probably because of the decomposition of trisodium phosphate, which was used as a water treatment chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Investigation (visual inspection, 95x unetched images, chemical testing with a 5% salt spray, chemical testing with sodium hypochlorite at three strength levels, samples were also pickled in an aqueous solution containing 15 vol% concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) and 3 vol% concentrated hydrofluoric acid (HF...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... developed was of the form known as caustic cracking. It was recommended that water for de-superheater use should be taken after the deaerator and prior to the addition of salts which may deposit or concentrate in the desuperheater. Bellows Corrosion environments Leakage Sodium hydroxide Sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A fused-salt electrolytic-cell pot containing a molten eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium chlorides and operating at melt temperatures from 500 to 650 deg C (930 to 1200 deg F) exhibited excessive corrosion after two months of service. The pot was a welded cylinder...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... , Cramer S.D. and Covino B.S. , Ed., ASM International , 2003 , p 287 – 293 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003620 Background Findings Discussion Recommendations Summary The salt water impeller experienced severe aluminum dealloying corrosion assisted by erosion caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The contamination of water by chlorides was observed as well as the presence of salts on the tube walls. The life time of the tube was only 50 h; thus, the possibility of microstructural aging in the samples was discarded. However, the microstructural changes which happened in the material led to the formation...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 15 Analysis of the rinse water residue by FTIR produced absorption bands associated with an inorganic sulfate salt. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... (up to 20 days) to 3.5% salt (NaCl) water. Both materials were mildly corroded by saturated salt water (25% NaCl). 3. Both materials were readily corroded by simulated galvanic coupling (in 3.5% salt water) to slightly more noble materials. In addition, stress-corrosion resistances were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... as a γ 2 phase. This structure is typical of alloys dealuminized in salt water. Lower-magnification micrographs ( Fig. 8 and 9 ) showed varying degrees of dealloying (dealuminization). In all cases, no cracks were evident and the dealloying was confined to the crevice area of the socket-weld joint...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Analysis of the discolored area by FTIR produced results that are consistent with carboxylic salts and salts of organic acids, in addition to hydroxyl functionality, which is likely from absorbed water or metallic oxides. These compounds are characteristic of oxidation products of metals. Based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... and heat exchanger tubes. The resistance of these alloys is due to the formation of protective films which are reinforced in the presence of iron [ 2 ]. However, the poor resistance of C70600 to salt water high in sulfides has been documented [ 3 ]. Iron is also known to shift the immunity potential toward...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... bars that had spent 9 months in service were dipped and rinsed in distilled water containing 1% HNO 3 in order to extract water-soluble salts from the corrosion products. Chemical analysis of the solution, using atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion-exchange chromatography, yielded Na K + , Ca 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...) for 4 h, austenitize at 900 °C (1650 °F) for 30 min, furnace cool to 845 °C (1550 °F) and hold for 30 min, quench in salt bath at 205 °C (400 °F) for 20 min, air cool to 50 °C (125 °F), wash in hot water, air dry, snap temper at 315 °C (600 °F) for 4 h, air cool, final temper at 550 °C (1025 °F) for 4 h...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Summary of Relevant Failures in Tank 39 Purge Ventilation System Table 1 Summary of Relevant Failures in Tank 39 Purge Ventilation System Incident Impact Chromate cooling water system (CCW) failure The condenser uses the chromate cooling water. Salts may escape when the condenser...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... bronze (copper alloy C61400 or C62800) and was put back into service. However, copper alloy C68700 was the material used for all subsequent replacement tubes. Copper alloys with high copper content, such as alloy C23000 (red brass, 85% Cu), are almost immune to dezincification in most water and salt...