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SEM backscattered electron analysis

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., investigators concluded the pipe was contaminated with copper at the mill were it was produced. line pipe cracks copper contamination high-strength low-alloy pipe steel copper entrapment SEM backscattered electron analysis bend ductility API 5L X65 PSL2 (high-strength low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... spectrometer (SEM/EDS). The SEM allows for high-magnification study of surfaces by utilizing electrons instead of visible light. This instrument is equipped with magnetic lenses and coils, which scan the sample surface with electrons (primary electrons) that are emitted from an electron gun through a column...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... interests of the user. Scanning electron microscopes have been found particularly useful in failure analysis investigations. This is true for a number of reasons, the most prominent being the ability of the SEM to image large, nonflat samples from low to high magnifications (approximately 10× to greater...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... impinging on the specimen interact with the specimen in several ways. Higher-atomic-number elements “reflect” or backscatter more electrons than lower-atomic-number elements. This makes higher-atomic-number–rich areas of a specimen appear brighter. Fig. 1 SEM image of flaky metallic contaminants...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information from a sample. Thus, the analytical capabilities of an SEM cover a wide range of information, and accessories can be chosen to suit the particular interests of the user. Scanning electron microscopes have been found particularly useful in failure analysis investigations. This is true...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 45 SEM backscattered electron image of area within Fig. 44 , showing points identified for detailed EDS analysis More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Imaging Using Backscatter Electron and Secondary Electron Detectors When identifying a location to perform chemical analysis in the SEM, simultaneous imaging using backscattered electron (BSE) and secondary electron (SE) detectors is indispensable. Current SEM technology allows for this type of dual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-alloy carbon steel spheroidization SEM backscattered electron analysis microstructural transformation T12 (chromium-molybdenum low-alloy carbon steel) Introduction Low-alloy CrMo carbon steels, such as T12, T22, and T23, are widely used as high-temperature economiser tubes (e.g., waterwall...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of sulfur-rich and iron-rich scale on a corroded steel pipe. BEI, backscattered electron imaging When failed components cannot be processed to obtain samples suitable for examination in the SEM, the handheld XRF instruments can be valuable tools for failure analysis. The most popular use...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... along the inside diameter of one of the failed tubes. Figure 3 shows the coarse particles revealed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). These particles, located within cracks and on the fracture surface, were found to contain chlorine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...) and a temperature of 315 °C (600 °F). Specimen Selection All four of the failures appeared identical. This case study will focus on stud 3 from Fig. 1 , which was sectioned for metallographic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) inspection. Similar analyses were performed on the remaining studs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...) good bearing Figure 7 shows the SEM images of the worn surfaces of the bearing specimens. The SEM also reveals plowing, deformation, and smearing of material on the worn surface of the failed bearing ( Fig. 7a ). The backscattered electron image ( Fig. 7b ) reveals that worn surface is more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Scanning electron microscopy instruments combined with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) attachment (also referred to as EDX) allow the elemental chemical analysis of plastic materials. The EDS analysis with an SEM instrument can produce additional information for the plastic surfaces. The SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to disintegration/failure of individual groups of wires. To understand the genesis of LCTR wire failures, a detailed metallurgical investigation of failed rope wires was made and included visual examination, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Two types...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... submerged arc welding SC carbon saturation SCC stress-corrosion cracking SCE standard calomel electrode SCF stress concentration factor SE secondary electrons SEM scanning electron microscopy; second- ary electron microscopy SFRP short fiber reinforced polymer compos- ite S-L short transverse-longitudinal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... carried out in a pneumatically actuated, electronically controlled microhardness tester using 50 gm applied load and an indenter dwell time of 30 s. Morphological observations of the fracture surfaces were carried out in a SEM, while EDS analyses of NMI were carried out at 20 kV accelerating voltage and 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... The aim of the present investigation is to identify the root cause of failure and propose corrective measures. Visual inspection, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer for fractographic and microstructural evaluation, along with chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of metallic coating ( Fig. 11 ). A sample of each piece of debris was prepared for SEM/EDS analysis to facilitate chemical identification ( Fig. 12 ). Fig. 11 Larger fragments found in chip detector. Note the backscatter electron SEM images (center photos) showing bright spots that were composed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the study. The samples that were analyzed had been operating at 1350 °C in a gas turbine at a combined-cycle generating plant. They were regenerated once, then used for different lengths of time. The investigation included chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, SEM/energy dispersive spectroscopy...