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SEM backscattered electron analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... standards can produce results of 5% accuracy with a precision of 0.1 wt%. Additional details on x-ray analysis can be found in the article “X-Ray Spectroscopy in Failure Analysis” in this Volume. Additional signals that can be monitored in an SEM are the specimen current and the electron backscattered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fluorescence of additional x-rays that have not come from the region sampled. Another problem in the SEM is that when the electron beam strikes the sample surface, a large number of elastically backscattered electrons (BSEs) are produced. These electrons can strike other regions inside the SEM chamber and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., investigators concluded the pipe was contaminated with copper at the mill were it was produced. line pipe cracks copper contamination high-strength low-alloy pipe steel copper entrapment SEM backscattered electron analysis bend ductility API 5L X65 PSL2 (high-strength low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... disintegration/failure of individual groups of wires. To understand the genesis of LCTR wire failures, a detailed metallurgical investigation of failed rope wires was made and included visual examination, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Two types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) images, backscattered electron (BSE) images, and Auger maps. The SEM images, which provide a topographic view of the sample by detecting low-energy electrons emitted from the surface, are used to locate specific areas for more detailed study. The BSE images, involving higher-energy electrons that have...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... study. The samples that were analyzed had been operating at 1350 °C in a gas turbine at a combined-cycle generating plant. They were regenerated once, then used for different lengths of time. The investigation included chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, SEM/energy dispersive spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... thinning low-alloy carbon steel spheroidization SEM backscattered electron analysis microstructural transformation T12 (chromium-molybdenum low-alloy carbon steel) Low-alloy CrMo carbon steels, such as T12, T22, and T23, are widely used as high-temperature economiser tubes (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... hydrogen embrittlement. When identifying a location to perform chemical analysis in the SEM, simultaneous imaging using backscattered electron (BSE) and secondary electron (SE) detectors is indispensable. Current SEM technology allows for this type of dual simultaneous imaging; sometimes even...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... failed tubes. Figure 3 shows the coarse particles revealed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). These particles, located within cracks and on the fracture surface, were found to contain chlorine, oxygen, and iron. Figure 4 shows the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... failure and propose corrective measures. Visual inspection, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer for fractographic and microstructural evaluation, along with chemical analysis and hardness testing were used as the basic techniques in the present...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ). A sample of each piece of debris was prepared for SEM/EDS analysis to facilitate chemical identification ( Fig. 12 ). Fig. 11 Larger fragments found in chip detector. Note the backscatter electron SEM images (center photos) showing bright spots that were composed of silver, confirming this as...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... temperature of 315 °C (600 °F). All four of the failures appeared identical. This case study will focus on stud 3 from Fig. 1 , which was sectioned for metallographic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) inspection. Similar analyses were performed on the remaining studs, with identical conclusions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the axle had not been austenitized. Thus, the temperature was never high enough to melt the copper alloy backing material. The material within the cracks was analyzed in an SEM. Figure 45 shows a backscattered electron image of the part of the bright-field electron image shown in Fig. 44 . At...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... present during the manufacture, storage and assembly of the piping. Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. No evidence for this failure mechanism could be found in the investigations, neither by optical microscopy or by scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SEM, neither energy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., interdendritic stress-rupture fracture at the trailing edge SX turbine blade casting. Creep voids can be observed on the fracture surface in this case Fig. 10 SEM backscatter electron (BEI) image documenting additional secondary stress-rupture cracks and wrinkled aluminide coating on the CCV-TE side of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Examination by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the specimens tested in dry laboratory air failed predominantly by ductile rupture in the silver. These specimens included those that ruptured immediately in the torque-to-failure test and in the time-to-rupture test. The fractures...