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Rolling direction

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of both fractured and bent blades revealed similar preexisting cracks at the toes of bar attachment welds. Metallographic examination of the bent and the fractured bars revealed they had been cut parallel and transverse, respectively, to the rolling direction of the steel plate. Due to the combined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... The directionality of the features was found to be suggestive of shear overload. It was observed that fracture preferentially followed the nonmetallic inclusions. The fracture was revealed to be parallel to the direction of the manganese sulfide stringer inclusions. The presence of significant banding of the ferrite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... propagation rates, fracture toughness, notch toughness, and transverse tensile properties, and do so in an anisotropic manner with respect to rolling direction. Significant property anisotropy has been documented in the failures investigated, providing evidence that designers failed to account for it. Typical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., with the long axis parallel to the working direction and radial orientation with regard to depth, strongly suggests a seam produced during rolling. Flaws of this nature are not uncommon in rolled bars and generally do not present a serious problem if allowance has been made for adequate stock removal before...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0045987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract A support arm on a front-end loader failed in a brittle manner while lifting a load. The arm had a cross section of 50 x 200 mm (2 x 8 in.). Material used for the arm was hot-rolled ASTM A572, grade 42 (type 1), steel, which exhibited poor impact properties in the as-rolled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of landings nor the roll mileage was reported, but about 300 days had elapsed between the date of manufacture and the date the wheel was removed from service. The analysis (visual inspection, macrographs, micrographs, electron microprobe) supported the conclusions that the wheel half failed by fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0048804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Fig. 1 Failures of gray cast iron paper-roll driers. (a) Axial-shell failure. (b) Circumferential-shell failure Fig. 2 Both sides of a journal-to-head failure in a cast iron paper-roll dryer. (a) Bottom of failed dryer. (b) The failed bolted-on head Abstract Abstract Several...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... took off and was thus available for examination. Failure occurred after 37 landings (about 298 roll km, or 185 roll miles). Examination of the fracture surfaces revealed that a forging defect was present in the wall of the wheel half. The anodized coating showed distinct twin-parallel and end-grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0048596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... the failures occurred were all in the same position relative to the direction of wheel rotation. Visual examination showed the break was a fairly flat transverse fracture in the threaded section between the washer and the nut. The appearance of the fracture surfaces was characteristic of failure by low-cycle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c0048114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... of the seam. The light flecks near the surface are ferrite; the gray areas in the seam are unidentified nonmetallics, probably oxides. 100× Abstract Abstract A locomotive suspension spring with a bar diameter of 36 mm failed. Outdoor exposure of a hot-rolled hardened-and tempered 5160 bars...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract An air blower in an electric power plant failed unexpectedly when a roller bearing in the drive motor fractured along its outer ring. Both rings, as well as the 18 rolling elements, were made from GCr15 bearing steel. The bearing also included a machined brass (MA/C3) cage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the longitudinally-cut specimens. This difference is not totally unexpected, as the 8th Edition of the Metals Handbook cites similar energy differences in 0.12% C steel plate. The fracture faces for these specimens showed the tremendous amount of directionality associated with the rolling direction of this plate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... micrograph showing microstructural orientation produced by rolling. RD, rolling direction Selected Reference • Becker W.T. and McGarry D. , Mechanisms and Appearances of Ductile and Brittle Fracture in Metals , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ) = 447 MPa, ultimate tensile stress ( σ max ) = 567 MPa, yield elongation with L 0 of 50 mm (El) = 31%, and impact resistance at −20 °C (KCV) = 96 J. The samples were obtained from the steel sheet in an axis parallel to rolling direction and were machined in a cylindrical shape: 10 mm in diameter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Tensile strength, MPa Elongation (50 mm), % Average 335 ± 61 479 ± 43 11.3 ± 1.2 Microstructural analysis revealed that the plate shows typical banding along the rolling direction, as shown in Fig. 8 . This microstructural anisotropy is reflected in the notch toughness values; the higher...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... specification. Visual examination of the cracked splice plate showed cracks in the heel region running parallel to the rolling direction. Light microscopy as well as SEM–EDS studies of the sample near the crack (sample# 1) did not reveal any cut, notches, or entrapments. The etched microstructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... aligned parallel to the predominant rolling direction of the plate. Fig. 8 Macro etched section taken adjacent to that seen in fig. 5 . Ultrasonic examination of both plates using a normal probe technique did not disclose the presence of any internal laminations, nor were any areas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... plating Cutting of the strip so that the rolling direction was perpendicular rather than parallel to the seating tensile load Annealing or stress relieving the cold-rolled strip in the 475 °C (885 °F) temperature range for high chromium content Not stress relieving the strip after cold rolling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...; the results are shown in Fig. 7 . The 20 J (15 ft·lb) transition temperatures were 65 and 50 °C (150 and 120 °F) for the longitudinal and hoop (rolling) directions, respectively. The toughness at the hydrotest temperature in the longitudinal orientation of the vessel (i.e., in the direction of the fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... of the journal bearing. Two almost identical fracture surfaces from failed locomotive axles were also obtained. A photograph of one fracture surface is shown in Figure 6 . The fracture surface was 90° with respect to the rolling direction of the axle. The fracture surface was damaged due to the continued...