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Rockwell hardness testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 5. “ Standard Hardness Conversion Tables for Metals Relationship among Brinell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Superficial Hardness, Knoop Hardness, Scleroscope Hardness, and Leeb Hardness ,” E 140-12, ASTM International 6. “ Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...: 2% Nital) Rockwell hardness test using B scale (HRB) was used to measure hardness of the failed wrench socket and two of its counterparts. Hardness tester was calibrated for B scale prior to hardness measurements. Table 1 shows hardness test results of all three wrench socket materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... 0.0026 0.003 max. Calcium 0.0014 0.050 max. Iron remainder remainder Rockwell hardness testing was conducted on the failed component, as well as flat and parallel sectioned pieces. The part was required to have a hardness between HRC 50 to 54, in accordance with the governing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... that the tubes conformed to the ASTM specification except for the magnesium content, which ranged from 1.1 to 1.3%. This degree of excess beyond the specified range of 0.8 to 1.2% Mg did not appear to be serious or to explain the failures. Rockwell hardness tests, microhardness tests, and tension tests...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Fractured zones of bars Hardness analysis of fractured bar materials was carried out using a Rockwell hardness test machine. The measurements were carried out on three different surface areas. The core and surface hardness values are given in Table 1 . The hardness of bars was observed as 44–46 HRC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... an excessive amount of fine pearlite compared to what one would expect for a pipeline steel. A combination of Rockwell and Tukon hardness testing was used to map the hardness around the fracture origin site contained in piece 5-1, with the results presented in Figure 5 . The fracture origin site...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... cross section were conducted with a Rockwell hardness tester and a Knoop hardness indenter, respectively. After removal of the scale deposits, the inner and outer surfaces of the pipe were tested using the Rockwell C scale, with the following results: outer surfaces—54.0, 54.0, 56.0, 53.5 HRC; inner...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... P S Mn Si Cr Mo Ni Cu V Al W Co .452 .008 .014 .867 .248 .520 .014 .066 .149 .006 .032 .004 .010 Hardness, Rockwell “C” Scale Table 2 Hardness, Rockwell “C” Scale Test 1 2 3 4 Avg HRC 55 46 54 57 53 SEM Inspection of First Failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... preparation: grinding (100– 600 meshes), diamond paste polishing (6–1 μm), and etching with a 30 mL nitric acid, 10 mL chloridic acid, and 60 mL distilled water etchant. Samples for fractographic analysis were observed and photographed in equipment operating at 20 kV. Rockwell C hardness test comprised five...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to the weld fusion zone and arm. The diamond shapes are indentor penetrations for microhardness testing. Microhardness results are presented in Fig. 9 . The Rockwell B 90 is approximately an ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 90 ksi. 2 The hardness data closely correlate with the tensile data. The average...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) identification of the main regions of the structure directly affected by the initiation of the collapse; (c) sampling of key parts for evaluation through mechanical tests (hardness, tensile, and Charpy tests), fractography, and microstructural characterization; (d) structural analysis using computational models...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... (FeS 2 ), and pyrohotite (Fe (1−×) S). Both are common corrosion products of steel in a hydrogen sulfide environment. Elemental sulfur was not detected. The Rockwell B hardness of the 3-in. pipe was 73 ± 2, while the hardness of the reduction fitting was Rockwell B 82 ± 2. The hardness of the weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... condensate. Hardness testing was performed on a tube sample in the as-received condition. The bulk hardness obtained by the Vickers 500 g test method averaged the coarse-grained, dual-phase, microhardness of the autogeneous seam weld ( Fig. 6 ). Vickers 50 g microhardness testing differentiated between...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the laboratory opened crack sample. Hardness The bulk metal hardness of the steam turbine disc was measured using the Rockwell test. The bulk metal hardness readings averaged Rockwell C (HRC) 20.2. This hardness value corresponds to a tensile strength of about 758 MPa (110 ksi) per the ASTM A370...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of alternative solutions were identified and then validated based on chemical analysis, endurance and hardness tests, and microstructural examination. The investigation revealed that carbonitriding can effectively eliminate the type of failure encountered because it prevents through hardening of the bearing cup...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Two intermediate impeller drive gears (made of AMS 6263 steel, gas carburized, hardened, and tempered) exhibited evidence of pitting and abnormal wear after production tests in test-stand engines. The gears were examined for hardness, case depth, and microstructure of case...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... after quenching and tempering. As is noted in Fig. 8 , for grade AISI 4340, the optimum fatigue resistance would be reached at about 45 HRC [ 6 ]. Fig. 8 Long-life fatigue strength as a function of Rockwell hardness for selected low-alloy steels In conclusion, all the analyses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... clearly indicated that the original sprocket was a medium plain carbon steel similar to 1045. The replacement sprocket was not 1045 as specified, but a much lower carbon steel, close to 1020. Microscopic examination ( Fig. 2 and 3 ) confirmed the spark test results. The hardness of the original sprocket...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in seawater applications [ 3 ]. The heat treatment creates a desirable microstructure that is more resistant to dealloying along with increased hardness (~96 Rockwell B). The salt water impeller experienced severe aluminum dealloying corrosion assisted by erosion caused by recirculated service discharge...