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Rock candy fracture

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... Abstract Following a freight train derailment, part of a fractured side frame was retained for study because a portion of its fracture surface exhibited a rock candy appearance and black scale. It was suspected of having failed, thereby precipitating the derailment. Metallography, scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... equiaxed grains have a distinctive rock-candy appearance that may be visible with a hand lens. Surface roughness provides clues as to whether the material is high strength (smoother) or low strength (rougher) and whether fracture occurred as a result of cyclic loading. The surfaces from fatigue crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Engineering component and structure failures manifest through many mechanisms but are most often associated with fracture in one or more forms. This article introduces the subject of fractography and aspects of how it is used in failure analysis. The basic types of fracture processes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reveals a faceted “rock candyfracture surface ( Fig. 2a ), which may be visible at low magnification (hand lens) if the grain size is coarse. In some cases, however, the intergranular features may not be as obvious. For example, intergranular fractures may have a relatively smooth, featureless fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... present either between grains or a particle/matrix boundary coincident with the grain boundary ( Ref 4 ). When the grain structure is equiaxed, the fracture surface typically reveals a faceted “rock candyfracture surface ( Fig. 2a ), which may be visible at low magnification (hand lens) if the grain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a description of the microscale models and mechanisms for deformation and fracture. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are discussed for various specimen geometries and loading conditions. The article reviews the general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article focuses on characterizing the fracture-surface appearance at the microscale and contains some discussion on both crack nucleation and propagation mechanisms that cause the fracture appearance. It begins with a discussion on microscale models and mechanisms for deformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... cracking with typical “rock candy“-type facets, as shown in Fig. 5 . The sample, the fracture surface of which is shown in Fig. 6 , exhibited only cleavage facets and no evidence of temper embrittlement. Fig. 5 Typical “rock candyfracture appearance with intergranular cracking exhibited by temper...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of this potential root cause could be recommended. Intergranular brittle fracture exhibits little or no plastic deformation and fractographic features devoid of rupture evidence. This is the classic “rock-candy” appearance in brittle materials. Materials that are identified as “embrittled” are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In failure analysis, the investigator must distinguish which type of intergranular fracture has occurred, because the causes and corrective actions can be substantially different. Intergranular fracture is the most prevalent form of decohesive rupture, and this is the classic “rock candy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... surface associated with the crack in defective steel coil sample that were taken using an SEM. The fractographs clearly depict a brittle intercrystalline/intergranular fracture appearance with clear grain facets resembling “rock candy” appearance owing to an intergranular fracture path associated with...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... environment and stress. Chlorides, a common cause of SCC in materials and a common substance in the wellbore, usually result in transgranular attack in steel. The “rock candyfracture appearance seen in the failed samples would be more indicative of a caustic attack. Because the material has been used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... view of the fracture surface of a tensile test specimen from a cast steel that has suffered embrittlement, resulting in a “rock candyfracture. Fig. 9 Low-power light microscope view of a “rock candyfracture in a tensile specimen taken from a cast steel that had aluminum nitrides segregated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... illumination. Figure 9 shows a view of the fracture surface of a tensile test specimen from a cast steel that has suffered embrittlement, resulting in a “rock candyfracture. Fig. 9 Low-power light microscope view of a “rock candyfracture in a tensile specimen taken from a cast steel that had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... propagated on different planes, and converged during fast fracture in the location shown in Figure 2 . The size of the grains within these intergranular regions was so large, that the resultant “rock candy” morphology was observed using light optical microscopy. Figure 3 shows the intergranular morphology...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information on specific ions and substances, service environments, and preservice environments responsible for SCC. It details the analysis of SCC failures, which include on-site examination, sampling, observation of fracture surface characteristics, macroscopic examination, microscopic examination, chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of metallic insert Chaplet or insert cold shut, unfused chaplet C 400: Discontinuities caused by metallurgical defects C 410: Separation along grain boundaries C 411 (a) Separation along grain boundaries of primary crystallization Conchoidal or “rock candyfracture C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cleavage fracture. River patterns in region II indicate that brittle cracking propagated from the edges of the hardened case across the interior of the flange, as shown. Microscopic examination of the fracture surface in region I showed that the crack had propagated intergranularly. The “rock candy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Figure 2 shows the typical appearance of the fracture surface. The rock candy appearance of the fracture surface indicates the mode of fracture is intergranular separation. Fig. 2 SEM photomicrographs showing the typical intergranular appearance of the fracture surface of the crack. Top, 124...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... external surface of the failed truck beam. The light grey areas at the bottom of the pit shown in Figure 13 were identified as manganese phosphate conversion coating primer that is shown in detail in Figure 14 . Fig. 11 A (SEM) micrograph shows the presence of “rock candy” intergranular features...