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Reformer tubes

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Microstructural examinations on transverse cross sections of a steam reformer tube, showed the presence of large macrovoids elongated in the radial direction and emanating from the internal surface of the tube. The macrovoids were located at the interdendritic regions, and were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A sample tube was removed from a reformer furnace for life assessment after 69,000 h of service. Sections were cut from the tube, which was a spindle cast A297 Grade HK 40 (25 Cr, 20 Ni, 0.4 C) austenitic steel of 122.5 mm OD and 10.5 mm nominal wall thickness. They were examined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract During periodic inspection of the tubes of a reformer furnace, a soapy water leak test with the tubes pressurized with nitrogen was being carried out by site personnel in a manner contrary to the policy of the organization when one of the tubes suddenly disintegrated with explosive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract The failure of a reformer tube furnace manifold has been examined using metallography. It has been shown that the cause of failure was thermal fatigue; the damage was characterized by the presence of voids produced by creep mechanisms operating during the high temperature cycle under...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract An HK-40 alloy tubing weld in a reformer furnace of a petrochemical plant failed by leaking after a shorter time than that predicted by design specifications. Leaking occurred because of cracks that passed through the thickness of the weldment. Analysis of the cracked tubing indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Two steam-methane reformer furnaces were subjected to short-time heat excursions because of a power outage, which resulted in creep bulging in the Incoloy 800 outlet pigtails, requiring complete replacement. Each furnace had three cells, consisting of 112 vertical tubes per cell, each...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The curved parts of exit pigtails made of wrought Incoloy 800H tubing used in steam reforming furnaces failed by performance after a period of service shorter than that predicted by the designers. Examination of a set of tubes consisting of both curved (perforated) and straight parts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Intergranular oxidation Mechanical properties Thermal stresses Tubing Weldments Incoloy 800H UNS N08810 Intergranular fracture References 1. Thielsch Helmut and Cone Florence M. , “Failures, Integrity and Repairs of Petrochemical Plant Reformers”. 2. Marketing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... these units is a 1000 short ton/day ammonia plant designed by M.W.Kellogg and is situated in IJmuiden (NL). Synthesis gas for ammonia manufacture is made in a top-fired furnace by reforming a steam/methane gas mixture over a nickel catalyst. The pre-heated gas mixture enters spun cast catalyst tubes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... were used for the field inspection of the reformer furnace. Ultrasonic readings were taken on the horizontal header metal between each vertical tube and on both sides of any header welds. Over 350 readings were made. In addition, at some locations, readings were taken on the top, bottom, and sides. It...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract After being in service for ten years, two admiralty brass heat-exchanger tubes from a cooler in a refinery catalytic reforming unit cracked circumferentially in the area of U-bends. A blunt transgranular cracking with minimal branching propagating from the inside surface of the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... strongly endothermic process. Heat is therefore required for the reaction, as well as for elevation of the reaction temperature. Steam reforming can take place in a tubular reformer. A mixture of methane and steam at 500 °C (930 °F) and 30 bar (435 psi) flows through a number of catalyst-filled tubes in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... observed at the failure lip of tube 2 ( Fig. 8 ). The microstructure at the midwall location of the tube 2 failure consisted of ferrite and reformed pearlite ( Fig. 9 ). The presence of transformation products (reformed pearlite) at the failure lip indicated that this portion of tube 2 experienced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... properties and rapidly reforms when damaged, so that if bare metal becomes exposed locally the protective film is quickly restored. A boiler has, in fact been described as consisting essentially of a thin film of magnetite supported by steel tubes. Most readers will be aware that, after the acid cleaning of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract A tubular heat exchanger in a refinery reformer unit leaked after one month of service. The exchanger contained 167 type 304 stainless steel U-bent integral-finned tubes. Cracks in the tube wall were revealed during examination. Hardness of the tube was found to be 30 HRC at the inside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract The outlet-piping system of a steam-reformer unit failed by extensive cracking at four weld locations. The welded system consisted of Incoloy 800 (Fe-32Ni-21Cr-0.05C) pipe and fittings. The exterior surfaces of the system were insulated with rock wool that did not contain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ductility HP grade Cr-Ni steel (austenitic heat resistant steel) References 1. May I.L. , Silveira T.L. , Vianna C.H. : Criteria for the evaluation of damage and remaining life in reformer furnace tubes . Int. J. Press. Ves. Pip. 66 , 233 – 241 ( 1996...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... embrittlement of the tube material occurred. From the test results, it is evident that, during the operation of the hydrogen plant, a gas carburizing reaction took place between the reformer gases and the stainless steel. The type 304 stainless steel inner shell quench sleeve and the support tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... 1 ) includes inlet and outlet headers at the top, with tubes suspended from these headers. The assembly is one of several exchangers suspended in an exhaust flue downstream of a methanol reformer. The internal coil design pressure is 8.96 MPa (1300 psig) at 649 °C (1200 °F) and flue temperatures are...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... tubular heat exchanger in a refinery reformer unit was found to be leaking after 1 month of service. The exchanger contained 167 type 304 stainless steel U-bent integral-finned tubes, 19 mm ( 3 4 in.) in outside diameter. Heat exchangers sometimes fail by SCC because of improper...